Thinking about Evidence and Historical Perspective. vs. How do we know what we know?. If you were making a court case, which would you use? Why?. Primary Sources. Secondary Sources. First hand testimony Direct evidence Created at the time an event occurs.
How do we know what we know?
First hand testimony
Created at the time an event occurs
Discusses information that originally was presented elsewhere
Analyze, synthesize, interpret, evaluate, explain
What might be some of the challenges historians face when looking at evidence?
As a group, generate a series of questions to ask as you examine primary sources
"I left a trace" activity from The Big Six p. 50
Knowing the answers to these questions can help you decide HOW to interpret the information.
Ex. Was it written to persuade people to think or act a certain way?
Artifacts & Art Works
Census data & Statistics
Diaries, Letters & emails
Handwritten Letter, 19th C.
Collection of Personal Letters
George Washington (Lansdowne portrait) by Gilbert Stuart, oil on canvas, 1796
Birth Certificate, certified
A History of
the British Isles
Public School History of
England and Canada
Can we infer that Chrétien was a racist?
Can we infer that the government didn’t respect Aboriginal Peoples?
Excerpt taken from ‘The Unjust Society: The Tragedy of Canada’s Indians’ by Cree leader Harold Cardinal:
“It sometimes seems to Indians that Canada shows more interest in preserving its rare whooping cranes than its Indians. And Canada, the Indian notes, does not ask its cranes to become Canada geese. It just wants to preserve them as whooping cranes. Indians hold no grudge against the big, beautiful, nearly extinct birds, but we would like to know how they managed their deal. Whooping cranes can remain whooping cranes, but Indians are to become brown white men.”
What do you think is the author’s purpose here?
Who is the intended audience?
What can you infer about Canada’s history by looking at this source?
How could you use this as historical evidence?
BUT – we have to judge it through the lens of its time period, not the lens of today’s knowledge and values.
Developing your skills as historians
What do you see?
What questions do you have?
What inferences would you make?
1862-Small Pox WIPE OUT
The arrival of Samuel de Champlain, the father of New France, on the site of Quebec City
1876-The Indian Act
‘Indian Agents’ assigned to First Nations people
The 1911 census shows Aboriginal population at their lowest recorded point in history (106,000)
Ceremonies banned (potlatch and sun dance)
No national Aboriginal organization allowed
banned and elected band council was imposed
70 residential schools in operation
Aboriginal participation in WWII is high
Tommy Prince (shown right) becomes most decorated Aboriginal soldier in WWII
1950- Indian Act overhauled with Aboriginal participation
“Indians” get the right to vote (1960)
Creation of National Indian Brotherhood (later Assembly of First Nations)
Federal White Paper recommends termination of treaties and Indian status
Text Reading: pg343-349 (skip 346-47):
Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Oka and Self Government.
1 OPP officer killed by Mohawk
Dudley George killed by OPP
by a First Nation since the
Douglas treaties of 1854
2006 - Canada votes against adopting the draft document: “vague and ambiguous, leaving it open to different, and possibly competing, interpretations.”
2007, Canada is 1 of 4 countries to vote against adopting document
2010 Canada signs on despite noting that its “concerns are well known and remain”
The document is non-binding
Attawapiskat → October 2011
Watch - NIR Feb. 2012
NIR: March 2013: Idle No More
Started in response to Bill C-45 which weakened Environmental laws
Chief Theresa Spence 6-week hunger strike on Parliament Hill
Harper meets with AFN and some other chiefs
And read the article- 9 Questions about ‘Idle no more’
Does the government have a moral responsibility to address the problems facing many of our aboriginal communities?
Students in a classroom in Resolution NWT (Nathional Archives)
What do you see? Describe the child in each photo.
What could you infer from these photos?
Now let Ms Howie give you some more context. (legacyofhope p.93) )
Now read the second account.
How does this account add to or change your interpretation of residential schools?
Does it influence your thinking to know both of these written accounts were selected by a Canadian organization whose purpose is to share the experiences of residential schools, teach non-Aboriginal Canadians about the wrongs of the past and also set a foundation for healing?
Read the excerpted apology and
response by Matthew Coon Come
What now? How should we as a country move forward with Aboriginal issues?
Be prepared to explain why you chose that corner using EVIDENCE and demonstrating awareness of PERSPECTIVE and the ETHICAL dimension