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Infection Control. Microorganisms. Small living organism not visible to the naked eye, a microbe Pathogen (cause infections) vs. nonpathogen (harmless or helpful microorganisms). Grouping of Microorganisms.

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Small living organism not visible to the naked eye, a microbe

  • Pathogen (cause infections) vs. nonpathogen (harmless or helpful microorganisms)
grouping of microorganisms
Grouping of Microorganisms
  • Bacteria: gonorrhea, pneumonias, syphilis, cholera, meningitis, boils, TB, tetanus, botulism, Lyme Disease
  • Viruses: colds, measles, mumps, polio, chicken pox
  • Fungi: ringworm, athlete’s foot, thrush (yeast)
grouping of microorganisms1
Grouping of Microorganisms
  • Helminthes: parasitic worms pinworm, hookworms
  • Protozoa: often protists EX: malaria, dysentery, sleeping sickness
types of infections
Types Of Infections
  • Endogenous: originates inside the body: ruptured appendix
  • Exogenous: originates outside the body: Bacteria enters a cut
  • Nosocomial: acquired in a health care facility
  • Opportunistic: infections that attack when the body is weak
chain of infection
Chain of Infection

A Causative agent: a pathogen

B Reservoir: place where the causative agent can live: may be a person who does not get sick

Fomites are objects contaminated with an infectious agent: door knobs, ties, rings, instruments, linens: a short term home


C. Portal of exit: a way for the agent to escape the reservoir and enter the body

urine, feces, saliva, tears, draining wounds, sexual secretions

chain of infection1
Chain of Infection

D.Mode of transmission: transfer to another reservoir or host

a. direct contact: person-to-person

b. indirect contact: transmitted by a contaminated object

c. vector: insects, rodents, etc

contact is not enough
Contact is not enough!!!
  • Causative agent has to get into the new reservoir or host

E. Portal of Entry: way to enter a new reservoir or host

mouth, nose, eyes, breaks in skin, sexual contact

F.Susceptible host: able to get sick

body defenses
Body defenses

1.Mucous Membranes

2. Cilia

3. Coughing and sneezing

4. Hydrochloric acid

5. Tears in the eyes (bactericidal)

6. Fever

7. Inflammation

8. Immune response (IgG, IgA)

aseptic control
Aseptic Control

(man vs microbes)

  • Septic: pathogens are present
  • Aseptic: no pathogens are present
  • Contaminated: pathogens and non-pathogens are present
aseptic control man vs microbes
Aseptic control (man vs microbes)
  • Antiseptic: prevent or inhibit the growth of many pathogens but not viruses or spores (Alcohol pad)
  • Disinfect: destroys or kills many pathogens but may not kill all viruses and molds. (Bleach)
  • Sterilize: destroys all micro-organisms including viruses and mold.(Gas,radiation,steam,chemicals)
when to wash your hands
When to wash your hands
  • When you arrive and before you leave work
  • Before and after every patient contact
  • Any time hands are contaminated
  • Before applying and after removing gloves

5. Before and after handling any specimen

6. After picking something off the floor

7. After you cough, sneeze or use a tissue

8. Before and after eating, applying lip balm, or touching eyes or mouth

how to wash your hands
How to wash your hands
  • Use Soap, Warm Water and Friction
  • All sides and surfaces
  • Fingertips points down
  • Turn on and off water with a dry paper towel
  • Must have clean nails
waterless hand cleansers
Waterless hand cleansers
  • Safe for routine patient care
  • Hands are not visibly dirty
  • Hands are not contaminated with blood or body fluids
  • Wash hands after 6-10 cleaning with alcohol based product
standard precautions
Standard Precautions

Rules developed by the CDC to protect employees from disease

They apply when HCP come in contact with

a.) blood

b.) body fluids

c.) mucous membrane

d.) nonintact skin

e.) tissue or cell specimens

basic rules of standard precautions
Basic Rules of Standard Precautions
  • Handwashing
  • Gloves whenever in contact with body fluids
  • Gowns whenever splash/spray of body fluids
  • Mask and eye protection
basic rules
Basic Rules

5.Sharps discard uncapped and placed in container

6. Spills or splashes of body fluids cleaned up immediately

7. Waste Disposal

8. Injuries reported immediately

  • Tartars throwing bodies of dead plague victims over the walls of Caffa in 1346
  • British providing blankets infected with small pox to Delaware Indians 1763
  • Combatants in WWI and WWII
  • US, Canada and USSR in 1960s
  • Sarin gas in Tokyo in 1995
  • Anthrax in US in 2001
how antibiotics work
How antibiotics work
  • Bactericidal: kills bacteria
    • Penicillin inhibits an enzyme needed to build the cell wall
    • Cipro blocks the enzyme

that uncoils DNA

preventing replication

and transcription.

how antibiotics work1
How antibiotics work
  • Bacteriostatic: inhibits growth
    • Erythromyin
      • Binds to a ribosome and prevent protein synthesis
how antibiotics work2
How antibiotics work
  • Both effects
    • Aminoglycoside (gentamycin)
      • Cidal: disrupts the cell wall causing contents to leak
      • Static: binds to ribosome and blocks protein synthesis

Antibiotic resistance is the ability of bacteria or other microbes to resist the effects of an antibiotic.

Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in some way that reduces or eliminates the effectiveness of drugs, chemicals, or other agents designed to cure or prevent infections.

The bacteria survive and continue to multiply causing more harm. Source: CDC

epidural bleed
Epidural bleed