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A Chilean perspective of VOCALS

contribution to. Mechoso. Bretherton. Wood. Weller. Huebert. A Chilean perspective of VOCALS. Laura Gallardo Klenner Center for Mathematical Modeling, University of Chile (CNRS UMI 2807) lgallard@dim.uchile.cl. SOLAS/IGAC?. http://www.joss.ucar.edu/vocals/. Outline.

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A Chilean perspective of VOCALS

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  1. contribution to Mechoso Bretherton Wood Weller Huebert A Chilean perspective of VOCALS Laura Gallardo Klenner Center for Mathematical Modeling, University of Chile (CNRS UMI 2807) lgallard@dim.uchile.cl SOLAS/IGAC? VOCALS lgk misu06 http://www.joss.ucar.edu/vocals/

  2. Outline • VOCALS REx: a few highlights • Anthropogenic S perturbation of Sc? • Emissions • Coastal lows • Simulations • Observations • Summary and next steps “Camanchaca” VOCALS lgk misu06

  3. CC% SST CF Why focusing over the South East Pacific (SEP)? • Subtropical high (subsidence) • Andes Cordillera induces LLJ • Upwelling cold water and nutrients (fishery) • CCN production • Persistent Sc • Effective cooling • Important for regional and global climate • …but models don’t get the Sc right  • +Substantial anthropogenic perturbations VOCALS lgk misu06

  4. CFS Errors Prec SST CLD CGCM Problems • There is a meridional shift in ITCZ • a warm SST bias • and insufficient stratocumulus cloud cover VOCALS lgk misu06 Mechoso, 2006

  5. South Eastern Pacific/Western South America…WOW!!! • Active volcanoes (natural emissions) • Atacama: dryest desert of the world between the open Pacific and the heigh Andes (dust and circulations) • Intensive and long-term mining activities (anthropogenic emissions) • Humboldt current, upwelling and fishery (biogenic emissions, air-sea exchange and circulations) • Most persistent and extensive subtropical Sc deck of the SH (microphysics and energy balance) VOCALS lgk misu06

  6. DMS, sea salt Garreaud, 2006 VOCALS lgk misu06

  7. Pockets of open cells (POCs) e.g., WOW VOCALS lgk misu06

  8. In the remote marine atmosphere the supply of DMS and its oxidation mechanisms limit the rates of new particle nucleation and growth. These processes probably control the re-filling of POCs with clouds. Iodine, ammonia, and organics may also play a role. e.g., WOW Huebert, 2006 VOCALS lgk misu06

  9. Surface forcing from buoy driving a one-dimensional ocean model (PWP) produces a surface layer that is too warm and too salty. Additional cooling and freshening is needed…..Eddies? ) e.g., WOW VOCALS lgk misu06 Weller, 2006

  10. VOCALS lgk misu06 Wood, 2006

  11. 1 month intensive campaign in October 2007 8 • NB. Optimi$m • NASA/NOAA/NSF proposals under review • Chilean projects to be submitted July 11th VOCALS lgk misu06

  12. Chilean Air Force Swedish connection…CCN characterization S ~ 250 kUSD VOCALS lgk misu06

  13. IMARPE fishery research cruise: Oct-Nov 2007 International Partners - Peru Field experiment: October-November 2007 • Main goals (main instruments): • Characterize the near-coastal 3D wind structure (ship-borne wind profiling radar). • Assess the relation between the wind and mesoscale ocean processes (upwelling and eddies) (wind profiler, CTDs and ADCP) • Determine the dynamical and thermodynamical structure associated with the coastal clearing (ship-borne radiosoundings). Study region VOCALS lgk misu06 Cost ~ $70K (Peru)

  14. Chile is world’s largest Cu producer… Peru is also a Cu producer Lefhon et al, 1999 CONAMA, 2001 VOCALS lgk misu06

  15. Could the man made S emissions affect the cloud radiative properties? Under which conditions are anthropogenic emissions transported offshore? VOCALS lgk misu06

  16. COASTAL LOWS once a week VOCALS lgk misu06 Garreaud et al, 2002

  17. Coupled circulations/summer VOCALS lgk misu06 Mechoso, 2006

  18. Chuquicamata 82 events Composite CL like Cerro Moreno Strong easterly wind events downwind from the largest smelter…CL like? • Evalution of Antofagasta soundings 1989-2002 • Focus on extreme events: v700hPa >5 m/s VOCALS lgk misu06 Huneeus, 2003

  19. Dynamical Interpolation OH S-SO2 S-SO4 Dry / wet deposition Emissions (5%) Emissions (95%) Dry deposition Swedish MATCH+HIRLAM fields (ca. 0.1°) VOCALS lgk misu06

  20. Model Outputs VOCALS lgk misu06

  21. Average Jul20-Aug20 Event July 26 We should expect changes in cloud droplet radii  …or???? VOCALS lgk misu06

  22. July 26 Average Jul20-Aug20 Observations? Suggestive, isn’t it? VOCALS lgk misu06

  23. MODIS-Cloud droplet concentration VOCALS lgk misu06 Wood 2005

  24. …emission strengths/distribution … • Anthropogenic and volcanic: compile, order, check, extrapolate… • Biogenic:…parameterize…ROUGH estimate • …regional distribution and relative contributions.. • Dispersion modeling using re-analysis and downscaling • Compare with available observations • …which aerosols become CCN… • Intensive campaign (2008): • activated aerosols at a camanchaca station (CVI+on-line analysis) • PM10/PM2.5 at the same site & PIXE analyses & ionchromatograph • SO2 continuosly • Sunphotometer(s) • Deploy passive samplers for N-S transect and seasonal changes • ..changes in reff, CDNC… • Regional climate model simulations • Trend analyses for satellite data FONDECYT 2007-2010 Ana María Córdova (CEAZA) Manuel Leiva (CENMA) Laura Gallardo (CMM) VOCALS lgk misu06

  25. Laguna Chaxa, Atacama, Chile Summary • The SEP region is a fantastic research area!!..with a large potential for scientific growth • VOCALS offers a unique opportunity to improve our (quantitative) understanding of aerosol-cloud-climate and land-sea-atmosphere interactions • There is “evidence” of an impact of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols on the subtropical Sc deck (Huneeus et al, 2006) • The Swedish scientific contribution is key for characterizing the coastal CCN VOCALS lgk misu06

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