UNIT 3, Part 2 Loves and Losses Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue
Unit 3, Part 2 MAIN MENU Loves and Losses (pages 617–644) Click a selection title to go to the corresponding selection menu.
SELECTION MENU Selection Menu (pages 617–621) Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read
BEFORE YOU READ Meet Jimmy Santiago Baca Click the picture to learn about the author.
BEFORE YOU READ Connecting to the Poem The speaker in “I Am Offering This Poem” is a person of few possessions who compensates for a lack of material wealth with an intangible but powerful force: love.
BEFORE YOU READ Connecting to the Poem Before you read the poem, think about the following questions: • What value do you place on material objects? • How important is love when compared to these things?
BEFORE YOU READ Building Background The traditional homes of Navajo Indians, called hogans, are most often built from logs and mud. Occasionally constructed from stone, the humble dwellings have no windows and frame a single entrance facing east. Usually covered by a blanket, this entrance is one of only two openings. The other opening, in the dome-shaped roof, allows smoke to pass from the fire within. With little or no furniture to border the fire, the residing family gathers and sleeps on sheepskins placed over the earthen floor.
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Loves and Losses As you read “I Am Offering This Poem,” observe the speaker’s uncommon demonstrations of love.
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Metaphor and Simile Simile is a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two otherwise dissimilar objects or ideas by connecting them with the words like or as. Metaphor is a figure of speech that compares two seemingly unlike things.
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Metaphor and Simile Unlike simile, metaphor implies the comparison rather than stating it directly and does not use the connectives like or as. As you read, note the author’s use of metaphor and simile and draw inferences from his decisions to use figurative language.
BEFORE YOU READ Previewing and Reviewing Previewing is looking over a selection before you read it. It lets you begin to see what you already know and what you will need to know to understand the piece. It also helps you set a purpose for reading.
BEFORE YOU READ Previewing and Reviewing Reviewing is going back over what you have read to remember what is important and to organize ideas so that you will recall them later. Reviewing is especially important when you have ideas and information to remember.
BEFORE YOU READ Previewing and Reviewing Reading Tip: Scanning Before reading Baca’s poem in its entirety, quickly skim through it. Focus on the lines or stanzas that most interest you. Use a chart like the one on the next slide to jot down the things that attracted you to the words in the first place.
BEFORE YOU READ Previewing and Reviewing Once you have recorded the lines and why you like them, take your previewing a step further and note the stylistic patterns of the author.
BEFORE YOU READ Previewing and Reviewing
BEFORE YOU READ matureadj. having reached a desired state (p.619) The seed has grown into a vast and mature tree. denseadj. thick (p. 619) The girl’s hair was dense with waves and curls. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.
READING THE SELECTION Loves and Losses As you read, consider the following question. How might this poem change if the narrator were wealthy?
READING THE SELECTION Answer:Possible responses: The narrator would not be so dependent on abstract expressions of love; he would have tangible things to help him express his feelings. The poem would not change; although able to purchase material things, he would still understand their limited worth.
READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Metaphor and Simile Read the text highlighted in purple on page 619. What device has the poet employed here? Answer:Metaphor; the poem is not literally a pot full of yellow corn.
READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Previewing and Reviewing Read the text highlighted in blue on page 619.Besides expressing feelings for one person, what else is the speaker expressing in this poem? Answer:That the love he is expressing is sustaining and invaluable.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Respond • (a) Who do you think this poem is intended for? Explain. (b) How would you expect the recipient to feel after reading the poem?
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Respond Answer:(a) A family member or close friend or the narrator’s girlfriend or wife (b) Most likely grateful for the narrator’s commitment to love despite his inability to provide tangible examples of it.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret • (a) What reason does the speaker give for offering this poem? (b) What does this suggest about the speaker? Answer:(a) Because he has nothing else to give (b) That he is courageous or foolish, honorable or impractical for offering only words
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret • (a) What kinds of things does the speaker advise be done with the poem? (b) Why does the speaker believe that the poem can accomplish these things? Answer:(a) That it serve as food, clothing, and shelter (b) Because it is a metaphor for love, and love is a powerful, encompassing energy
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret • (a) What does the speaker propose is the one thing people require for existence? (b) What can you infer about the poet from this proposal? Answer:(a) The poem, which is a symbol for love (b) That he considers love a compelling and necessary force with great capabilities
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate • (a) How does the poem’s structure help convey its message? (b) How else might the poem be structured and still communicate this message? Answer:(a) “I love you” is repeated and isolated, indicating its importance. (b) By including “I love you” in the existing stanzas or before each stanza
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate • (a) How does Baca reveal characteristics of the speaker without directly showing his actions? (b) How do these characteristics help communicate the author’s message?
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Answer:(a) Examples: financial status by an admission of possessing nothing, self-worth by a willingness to offer himself in place of material things (b) The message of love is communicated by being given a person’s only and most valued possession.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate • (a) How does Baca divide the poem’s stanzas? (b) How does the first stanza compare with the second? With the third and fourth stanzas?
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Answer:(a) The first stanza addresses warmth; the second, nourishment; the third, security; the fourth, the poem’s necessity. (b) The first and second stanzas address the specific qualities of clothing and food; the third, security and warmth; and the fourth, all encompassing.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Connect Loves and Losses • Baca has experienced great loss in his life, including the loss of loved ones and his own freedom. How might these losses have inspired “I Am Offering This Poem”? Answer:You may say that Baca’s profound sense of loss and hardship gives him a better appreciation of love’s worth.
AFTER YOU READ Metaphor and Simile A metaphor compares two or more different things by stating or implying that one thing actually is another. A simile emphasizes a specific feature of something by comparing it to a separate object that is characteristic of that feature.
AFTER YOU READ Metaphor and Simile In order for a metaphor or simile to be successful, the comparison must be convincing. When Sandra Cisneros writes, “I’ve been waiting patient as a spider all these years,” the reader understands the simile because persistence is a quality attributed to spiders.
AFTER YOU READ Metaphor and Simile • Identify two or three metaphors or similes in “I Am Offering This Poem.” How does the use of these devices enhance the poem?
AFTER YOU READ Metaphor and Simile Answer:Examples include: “like a warm coat”, “like a pair of thick socks”, “tucked away like a cabin or hogan.” These devices increase the reader’s understanding and enjoyment of a line or passage.
AFTER YOU READ Metaphor and Simile • Change one of the poem’s metaphors to a simile and then change one of its similes to a metaphor. How does the switch affect the descriptions?
AFTER YOU READ Metaphor and Simile Answer: Examples: “Keep it like a warm coat” to “It is a warm coat”; “so it is a pot full of yellow corn” to “it is like a pot full of yellow corn” Students may notice that these slight changes seriously affect the author’s style.
AFTER YOU READ Review: Lyric Poetry As you learned on page 611, lyric poetry articulates the private thoughts and feelings of its speaker. Generally, lyric poetry is brief and melodic, yet packed with emotional intensity.
AFTER YOU READ Review: Lyric Poetry Partner Activity With a partner, read “I Am Offering This Poem” one stanza at a time. After completing a stanza, discuss the thoughts, feelings, and level of emotional intensity conveyed through its lines.
AFTER YOU READ Review: Lyric Poetry Use a chart like the one on the next slide to track your discussion. Record the ideas and emotions you imagine the author experienced when writing the poem or record the ideas and emotions you experienced while reading it.
AFTER YOU READ Review: Lyric Poetry
AFTER YOU READ Previewing and Reviewing By previewing, you can often find clues about the content of a selection before you begin reading. Similarly, reviewing the material will help you to remember important details.
AFTER YOU READ Previewing and Reviewing • The speaker compares his or her love to warming things. What does this tell you about the speaker’s frame of mind? Answer:Responses should express the speaker’s desire to have the person he loves feel comforted, secure, and safe.
AFTER YOU READ Previewing and Reviewing • Explain how the poem and the speaker are to be used like a compass through life. Answer:Responses should include “. . . if you were lost, needing direction” and “. . . and I will answer, give you directions.”
AFTER YOU READ Previewing and Reviewing Practice with Connotation and DenotationDecide whether each sentence uses the vocabulary word with a positive or negative connotation.
AFTER YOU READ Previewing and Reviewing • The young man’s mature demeanor impressed the interviewer. • positive • negative
AFTER YOU READ Previewing and Reviewing • The correctional officers leapt into the dense crowd of riotous prisoners. • positive • negative
AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary Here are two words from the vocabulary list. likewiseadv. in like manner nonethelessadv. nevertheless