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CITATIONS & REFERENCES. How to avoid plagiarism Anne-Marie Miller, Stephanie Bullock, Thyme Hansson. The Information Literacy Process: 1. Recognise the need for information 2. Analyse your problem – define and refine the question 3. Find background information (context)

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citations references


How to avoid plagiarism

Anne-Marie Miller, Stephanie Bullock, Thyme Hansson

The Information Literacy Process:

1.Recognise the need for information

2. Analyse your problem – define and refine the question

3. Find background information (context)

4. Identify resources

5. Locate resources

6. Evaluation

7. Synthesise information

8. Acknowledge the Source of information

9. Review the process

‘Respect the time and creative effort of those whose information you use’

(Warlick, 2009)

a reference is used to acknowledge the points opinions arguments and conclusions used in your work
A reference is used to acknowledge the points, opinions, arguments and conclusions used in your work.

It is acceptable to

paraphrase, summarise, quote and copy PROVIDEDyou acknowledge the source

….otherwise you are plagiarising


‘to appropriate and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one’s own’

[Latin plagiarius kidnapper, from plagium kidnapping, from Greek plagion].

(The new penguin English dictionary 2000)

academic misconduct by cit students policy
Academic Misconduct by CIT Students Policy
  • Academic misconduct: Any actions undertaken by a student that unfairly advances his or her progress in a subject and/or program. Academic misconduct will include plagiarism and cheating.
  • Plagiarism: Those actions by a student that use the ideas, words or work of another person without acknowledging the sources of the ideas, words or work.
  • Cheating: Those actions by a student that attempt to actually give the student or another student an unfair or dishonest advantage in an assessment event, or unfairly or dishonestly disadvantage other students in an assessment event.

(Academic Misconduct by CIT Students Policy 2008)

reference detailed bibliographic information expands citation used in body of assignment
Reference:Detailed bibliographic information expands citation used in body of assignment
  • In-text referencing:

Tiffen suggests that newsworthiness is subject to fashion and trends, and once a scandal is created it feeds upon itself (1999, p. 90).

A scandal may become a self consuming entity, as fashion and trends dictate newsworthiness (Tiffen 1999, p. 90)

  • Reference List:

Tiffen, R 1999, Scandals: media, politics, corruption in contemporary Australia, UNSW Press, Sydney.

reference list complete list of works used in assignment
Reference List:Complete list of works used in assignment

Alchemist 1998, Eve of the war, CD-ROM, Alchemist & D.W. Norton, Australia.

Brooks, C c1979, Understanding fiction, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.

Collins, B 2002, Mapping earth’s final frontier, GeoWorld, vol. 15, no. 2, Feb. 2002, pp. 28-31.

Miller, A 1998, Strategic management, 3rd edn, Irwin/McGraw-Hill, Boston, Mass.

Roberts, J 1993, Marketing for the hospitality industry, Hodder & Stoughton, London.

Valentine, JW 1997, Animal evolution, In McGraw-Hill Encyclopaedia of Science and Technology, 8th edn, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, vol. 1, pp. 675-681.

in text reference list
In text: Reference List:

Buddhism was introduced to Japan via Korea in 538 AD, when King Song of the Korean Peninsula (presently under Japanese occupation) sent a mission bearing Buddhist images and sutras (texts) to the Japanese emperor (Goto 2003, p. 18). Emperor Kimmei, hesitant to accept Buddhism was further divided by politically powerful clans, including the families of the Soga and Mononobe. The Mononobes’ argument that a foreign god would anger the kami, (and compromise their authority) led the emperor to bestow the gifts of King Song to the Soga family. Embracing the new religion, the Soga family not only invited Korean monks to instruct them in Buddhist philosophy, but had those adept in the construction of Buddhist temples, (carpenters, painters, sculptors) erect temples in Japan (Goto 2003, p. 19).

Berthier, F 2000, Reading Zen in the rocks: the Japanese dry landscape garden, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Goto, S 2003, The Japanese garden: gateway to the human spirit, P. Lang, New York.

Hobhouse, P 2004, Japanese Style: symbolism and restraint, In The story of gardening, Dorling Kindersley, London, pp. 346-379.

Itoh, T 1998, The gardens of Japan, Kodansha International, Tokyo.

Olds, CC 2008, The Japanese Garden, Bowdoin College, viewed 4th September 2009, .

Koren, L 2000, Gardens of gravel and sand, Stone Bridge Press, Berkeley, California.

Watts, A 2000, What is Zen?, New World Library, Novato, California.

a reference must be included when you
A reference must be included when you:

Paraphrase: express someone else’s ideas in your own work

Summarise: express someone else’s idea in your own words

Quote: express someone else’s idea in their exact words

Copy: reproduce a diagram, graph, or table from someone else’s work

paraphrase summary
Paraphrase & Summary:



how to reference
How to reference:

1. Determine system used by institution/teacher

Two most common types of referencing systems:


Harvard system →system used by CIT

APA (American Psychological Association)

MLA (Modern Language Association)

Numerical systems:

Chicago or Turabian



how to reference1
How to reference:

2. Provide relevant details

Author (s) name: Alain de Botton

Date of Publication: 2002

Title: The art of travel

Edition: -

Publisher’s name: Hamish Hamilton

Place of Publication: London

how to reference2
How to reference:

3. Present details in appropriate style

The standard format for referencing a publication is:

Author’s surname, First name or Initials Publication date, Title (in italics OR if your work is handwritten underline the title), Publisher, Place of publication.

how to reference3
How to reference:

De Botton, A 2002, The art of travel, Hamish Hamilton, London.

Published by the Penguin Group

Penguin Books Australia LTD

250 Camberwell Road, Camberwell, Victoria 3124, Australia Penguin Books Ltd.

80 Strand, London WC2R oRL, England Penguin Putnam Inc.

375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014, USA

Penguin Books, a division of Pearson Canada

10 Alcorn Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4V 3B2

Penguin Books (NZ) Ltd

Cnr Rosedale and Airborne Roads, Albany, Auckland, New Zealand

Penguin Books (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd

24 Sturdee Avenue, Rosebank, Johannesburg 2196, South Africa

Penguin Books India (P) Ltd

11, Community Centre, Panchsheel Park, New Delhi 110 017, India

Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL, England

how to reference4
How to reference:

The format will determine the details required:

Verify details required from “Acknowledging the Source”

Uncertain what to include:

Will this information assist the reader in locating the source?


Decide which system you are using and the details you will include and stick to it!

The new penguin English dictionary 2000, Penguin Books, London.

Allen, R (ed.) 2000, The new penguin English dictionary, Penguin Books, London.

reference list
Reference List:

Academic misconduct by CIT students policy 2008, Canberra Institute of Technology.

Brooks, M & Paulazzo, J 2005, Acknowledging the source, External Relations and Marketing, Canberra Institute of technology, Canberra.

Learning and Teaching Unit 2007, Referencing using the Harvard Author-Date System, University of South Australia, viewed 5 November 2009, .

The new Penguin English dictionary 2000, Penguin Books, London.

Warlick, D 2009, David Warlick and the Landmark Project, viewed 5 November 2009, .