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Nervous system/Sensory Organs • Same size as fish • No care process for young • Small cerebrum • Sight-well developed • Good size optic lobe • Eyes=large @ top • Detect prey • Eyelids • Nictitating membrane • “goggles” while swimming • Keep eyes moist
1) Olfactory lobe (scent) -connects to nostrils (draws in odors from water) by nerves 2) Cerebrum - reasoning - maternal care - controls higher brain functions 3) Optic lobe - sight (lens, optic nerve) - hearing 4) Cerebellum - coordinates balance/movement 5) Medulla - controls internal organs 6) Spinal cord - nerves transmitted
Nervous System/Sensory Organs • Sound- tympanic membrane • Pick up vibrations • Connects to Eustachian Tube • NOT EARS!!!! • Smell-Nares • Internal & External • High Set
Sight: Eyes: Covered with nictitating membrane -clear covering -lower eyelid -like googles
Sound: Frogs bring in air through nostrils. Mouth fills with air, as the air is forced back and forth between mouth and lungs it passes through the vocal sac. Vocal sac produces sound. In many species only the males make crocking sound.
Skeletal System • Land/terrestrial animals rely on an endoskeleton for support. • Inner skeletal system • Few modifications for being successful jumping: • Few vertebrae • Bones in forearm are fused • Radio-ulna • Bones in hindlimb are larger than others and fused • Tibiofibula To support force of jump
Digestive System • Larvae-herbivores • Adult-carnivores • Digestion starts in the mouth • 2 kinds of teeth • Used for gripping/holding prey and forcing it down gullet • DO NOT CHEW!!!!!
Food proceeds to the: • Pharynx (back of throat) • Gullet (opening to esophagus) • Esophagus • -very elastic, allows them to swallow large prey. • Stomach • -Where protein digestion occurs using gastric juices
heart • Small intestine • No pyloric caeca • Proteins, lipids, & carbs. Digestion • Get enzymes from: pancreas liver gall bladder • Held in place with mesentery (cloudy membrane) • Food molecules absorbed into blood • Large intestine • NO DIGESTION • Removes excess H2O • Storage of undigested food until sent to cloaca to be removed Small intestines liver Large intestines
Cloaca • Similar to the urogenital opening BUT… • Digestive AND urogenital systems meet here • Stores urine, sex cells, & feces until released • Vent • Similar to anus BUT everything exists here- • urine, sex cells, feces.
The VENT ……… (the end for those lacking a sense of humor!!)
Circulatory System • Larvae (fish-like) • 1 loop system • 2 chambered heart
Adult: • 2 loop system • 3 chambered heart
2 Loop Circulatory System • Pulmonary Circulation • blood travels from heart to lungs and back to heart • Systemic Circulation • blood travels from heart to body and back to heart
Advantage of 2 loop system: -faster blood flow to body -heart pumps blood to lungs then the heart pumps the blood to the rest of the body.
3 Chambered Heart: Oxygenated blood to the body Deoxygenated blood to the lungs Oxygenated blood from lungs Deoxygenated blood from the body Right atrium Left atrium Ventricle
3 chambered heart is inefficient because the “clean” and “dirty” blood mix in the ventricle.
Pathway of blood: • 1. O2 blood from lungs enters left atrium. • cLean blood = left side • 2. CO2 blood from body enters right atrium • diRty blood = right side 3. Heart pumps sending O2 blood and CO2 blood into the ventricle. Both blood types mix. 4. Heart pumps forcing “clean” blood to body and “dirty” blood to the lungs.
Respiratory system: Larvae: -respire or exchange O2 and CO2 through gills and skin Adults: -respire through lungs and skin
2 types: • Respire through moist skin-cutaneous respiration • Respire with lungs –pulmonary respiration Lungs
Nostrils • Glottis • (opening to trachea) • Trachea • Bronchi • Bronchioles • Air sacs • of lungs
Excretory System -Primary organ of excretion is the two kidneys. -Filters nitrogenous/cellular waste out of the blood. -Waste and excess water collected travel through ureter to the bladder as urine. -Passes into cloaca. -Exits out the vent.
Excretory System Kidney Uterer Cloaca Bladder
Reproductive System • Male Frog: • Sperm made in testes • Travels through sperm ducts to cloaca • Exits out vent Enlarged thumbs
Reproductive System • Female Frog: • Eggs made in ovaries • Travel along oviduct where jelly-coating is applied • Eggs empty out into cloaca & exit out vent when amplexus occurs
Fat Bodies Female Eggs & Oviducts Fall: Large amounts…..getting ready for hibernation Spring: Small amounts…..used during hibernation as energy supply.
Fun Bio-Nerdy Amphibian Facts • Group of frogs= Army • Group of toads= Knot
Fears… Batrachophobia- Fear of amphibians Ranidaphobia- Fear of frogs.Bufonophobia- Fear of toads.
Toads CANNOT give you warts!!! • Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)