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Nervous Tissue. Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue. P A R T A. Nervous System. The master controlling and communicating system of the body Functions Sensory input –the stimuli goes to CNS Integration – interpretation of sensory input

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Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue

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    1. Nervous Tissue Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue P A R T A

    2. Nervous System • The master controlling and communicating system of the body • Functions • Sensory input –the stimuli goes to CNS • Integration – interpretation of sensory input • Motor output – response to stimuli coming from CNS

    3. Nervous System Figure 11.1

    4. Organization of the Nervous System • Central nervous system (CNS) • Brain and spinal cord • Integration and command center • Peripheral nervous system (PNS) • Paired spinal and cranial nerves • Carries messages to and from the spinal cord and brain

    5. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): Two Functional Divisions • Sensory (afferent) division • Somatic sensory fibers – carry impulses from skin, skeletal muscles, and joints to the brain • Visceral sensory fibers – transmit impulses from visceral organs to the brain

    6. Motor Division: Two Main Parts • Motor (efferent) division • Somatic motor nervous system (voluntary)- carries impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles. Conscious control

    7. Motor Division: Two Main Parts • Visceral motor nervous system or Autonomic nervous system (ANS) (involuntary) - carry impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands • Sympathetic and • Parasympathetic • Enteric Nervous System (ENS)

    8. Histology of Nerve Tissue • The two principal cell types of the nervous system are: • Neurons – excitable cells that transmit electrical signals • Neuroglias (glial) – cells that surround and wrap neurons

    9. Supporting Cells: Neuroglia • Neuroglia • Provide a supportive scaffolding for neurons • Segregate and insulate neurons • Guide young neurons to the proper connections • Promote health and growth

    10. Neuroglia of the CNS • Astrocytes • Most abundant, versatile, and highly branched glial cells • Maintain blood-brain barrier • They cling to neurons and their synaptic endings, • They wrap around capillaries • Regulate their permeability

    11. Neuroglia of the CNS • Provide structural framework for the neuron • Guide migration of young neurons • Control the chemical environment • Repair damaged neural tissue

    12. Astrocytes Figure 11.3a

    13. Neuroglia of the CNS • Microglia – small, ovoid cells with spiny processes • Phagocytes that monitor the health of neurons • Ependymal cells – range in shape from squamous to columnar • They line the central cavities of the brain and spinal column

    14. Microglia and Ependymal Cells Figure 11.3b, c

    15. Neuroglia of the CNS • Oligodendrocytes – branched cells • Myelin • Wraps of oligodendrocytes processes around nerve fibers • Insulates the nerve fibers

    16. Neuroglia of the PNS • Schwann cells (neurolemmocytes) – • Myelin • Wraps itself around nerve fibers • Insulates the nerve fibers • Satellite cells surround neuron cell bodies located within the ganglia • Regulate the environment around the neurons

    17. Oligodendrocytes, Schwann Cells, and Satellite Cells Figure 11.3d, e

    18. Neurons (Nerve Cells) • Structural units of the nervous system • Composed of a body, axon, and dendrites • Long-lived, amitotic, and have a high metabolic rate • Their plasma membrane function in: • Electrical signaling • Cell-to-cell signaling during development

    19. Neurons (Nerve Cells) Figure 11.4b

    20. Nerve Cell Body (Perikaryon or Soma) • Contains the nucleus and a nucleolus • Is the major biosynthetic center • Is the focal point for the outgrowth of neuronal processes • Has no centrioles (hence its amitotic nature) • Has well-developed Nissl bodies (rough ER) • Contains an axon hillock – cone-shaped area from which axons arise

    21. Processes • Arm like extensions from the soma • There are two types of processes: axons and dendrites • Myelinated axons are called tracts in the CNS and nerves in the PNS

    22. Dendrites: Structure • Short, tapering processes • They are the receptive, or input, regions of the neuron • Electrical signals are conveyed as graded potentials (not action potentials)

    23. Neurons (Nerve Cells) Figure 11.4b

    24. Axons: Structure • Slender processes of uniform diameter arising from the hillock • Long axons are called nerve fibers • Usually there is only one unbranched axon per neuron • Axon collaterals • Telodendria • Axonal terminal or synaptic knobs

    25. Axons: Function • Generate and transmit action potentials • Secrete neurotransmitters from the axonal terminals • Movement along axons occurs in two ways • Anterograde — toward the axon terminal • Retrograde — toward the cell body

    26. Myelin Sheath • Whitish, fatty (protein-lipoid), segmented sheath around most long axons • It functions to: • Protect the axon • Electrically insulate fibers from one another • Increase the speed of nerve impulse transmission

    27. Myelin Sheath and Neurilemma: Formation • Formed by Schwann cells in the PNS • A Schwann cell: • Envelopes an axon • Encloses the axon with its plasma membrane • Has concentric layers of membrane that make up the myelin sheath

    28. Myelin Sheath and Neurilemma: Formation Figure 11.5a–c

    29. Nodes of Ranvier (Neurofibral Nodes) • Gaps in the myelin sheath between adjacent Schwann cells • They are the sites where axon collaterals can emerge

    30. Unmyelinated Axons • A Schwann cell surrounds nerve fibers but coiling does not take place • Schwann cells partially enclose 15 or more axons • Conduct nerve impulse slowly

    31. Axons of the CNS • Both myelinated and unmyelinated fibers are present • Myelin sheaths are formed by oligodendrocytes • Nodes of Ranvier are widely spaced

    32. Regions of the Brain and Spinal Cord • White matter – dense collections of myelinated fibers • Gray matter – mostly soma, dendrites, glial cells and unmyelinated fibers

    33. Neuron Classification • Structural: • Multipolar — three or more processes • Bipolar — two processes (axon and dendrite) • Unipolar — single, short process

    34. A Structural Classification of Neurons Figure 12.4

    35. Neuron Classification • Functional: • Sensory (afferent) — transmit impulses toward the CNS • Motor (efferent) — carry impulses toward the body surface • Interneurons (association neurons) — any neurons between a sensory and a motor neuron

    36. Comparison of Structural Classes of Neurons Table 11.1.1

    37. Comparison of Structural Classes of Neurons Table 11.1.2

    38. Neurophysiology • Neurons are highly irritable • Action potentials, or nerve impulses, are: • Electrical impulses carried along the length of axons • Always the same regardless of stimulus

    39. Electricity Definitions • Voltage (V) – measure of potential energy generated by separated charge • Potential difference – voltage measured between two points • Current (I) – the flow of electrical charge between two points • Resistance (R) – hindrance to charge flow

    40. Electricity Definitions • Insulator – substance with high electrical resistance • Conductor – substance with low electrical resistance

    41. Electrical Current and the Body • Reflects the flow of ions rather than electrons • There is a potential on either side of membranes when: • The number of ions is different across the membrane • The membrane provides a resistance to ion flow

    42. Role of Ion Channels • Types of plasma membrane ion channels: • Nongated, or leakage channels – always open • Chemically gated channels – open with binding of a specific neurotransmitter

    43. Role of Ion Channels • Voltage-gated channels – open and close in response to membrane potential. • 2 gates • Mechanically gated channels – open and close in response to physical deformation of receptors

    44. Gated Channels Figure 12.13

    45. Operation of a Chemically Gated Channel • Example: Na+-K+ gated channel • Closed when a neurotransmitter is not bound to the extracellular receptor • Na+ cannot enter the cell and K+ cannot exit the cell • Open when a neurotransmitter is attached to the receptor • Na+ enters the cell and K+ exits the cell

    46. Operation of a Voltage-Gated Channel • Example: Na+ channel • Closed when the intracellular environment is negative • Na+ cannot enter the cell • Open when the intracellular environment is positive • Na+ can enter the cell

    47. Gated Channels • When gated channels are open: • Ions move quickly across the membrane • Movement is along their electrochemical gradients • An electrical current is created • Voltage changes across the membrane

    48. Electrochemical Gradient • Ions flow along their chemical gradient when they move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration • Ions flow along their electrical gradient when they move toward an area of opposite charge • Electrochemical gradient – the electrical and chemical gradients taken together

    49. Resting Membrane Potential (Vr) • The potential difference (–70 mV) across the membrane of a resting neuron • It is generated by different concentrations of Na+, K+, Cl, and protein anions (A)

    50. Resting Membrane Potential (Vr) • Ionic differences are the consequence of: • Differential permeability of the neurilemma to Na+ and K+ • Operation of the sodium-potassium pump