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Network Analysis by Barry Wellman. Three Ways to Look at Reality. Categories All Possess One or More Properties as an Aggregate of Individuals Examples: Men, Developed Countries Groups (Almost) All Densely-Knit Within Tight Boundary

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Network analysis by barry wellman l.jpg

Network Analysisby Barry Wellman

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Three Ways to Look at Reality

  • Categories

    • All Possess One or More Properties as an Aggregate of Individuals

    • Examples: Men, Developed Countries

  • Groups

    • (Almost) All Densely-Knit Within Tight Boundary

    • Thought of as a Solitary Unit (Really a Special Network)

    • Family, Workgroup, Community

  • Networks

    • Set of Connected Units: People, Organizations, Networks

    • Can Belong to Multiple Networks

    • Examples: Friendship, Organizational, Inter-, World-System, Internet

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Nodes, Relationships & Ties

  • Nodes: A Unit That Possibly is Connected

    • Individuals, Households, Groups, Organizations, States

  • Relationships (A Specific Type of Connection)

    • Gives Emotional Support

    • Sends Money To

    • Attacks

  • Ties (One or More Relationships)

    • Friendship (with possibly many relationships)

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A Network is More Than The Sum of Its Ties

  • A Network Consists of One or More Nodes

    • Could be Persons, Organizations, Groups, Nations

  • Connected by One or More Ties

    • Could be One or More Relationships

  • That Form Distinct, Analyzable Patterns

    • Can Study Patterns of Relationships OR Ties

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Overview - Journals

  • Wellman founded, Connections, 1977

    • Informal journal: “Useful” articles, news, gossip, grants, abstracts, book summaries

    • Bill Richards, Tom Valente edit now

  • Lin Freeman founded, Social Networks, 1978

    • Formal journal: Refereed articles

    • Ronald Breiger now co-editor

  • David Krackhardt founded, J of Social Structure, 2000

    • Online, Refereed

    • Lots of visuals

    • Articles Appear Occasionally when their time has come

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Overview – Key Books

  • Elizabeth Bott, Family & Social Network, 1957

  • J. Clyde Mitchell, Networks, Norms & Institutions, 1973

  • Holland & Leinhardt, Perspectives on Social Network Research,1979

  • S. D. Berkowitz, An Introduction to Structural Analysis, 1982

  • Knoke & Kuklinski, Network Analysis, 1983

  • Charles Tilly, Big Structures, Large Processes, Huge Comparisons, 1984

  • David Knoke, Political Networks, 1990

  • John Scott, Social Network Analysis, 1991

  • Ron Burt, Structural Holes, 1992

  • Manuel Castells, The Rise of Network Society, 1996, 2000

  • Wasserman & Faust, Social Network Analysis, 1992

  • Nan Lin, Social Capital (monograph & reader), 2001

  • Monge & Contractor, Theories of Communication Networks, 2003

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Overview – Software

  • UCINet – Whole Network Analysis

  • MultiNet – Whole Network Analysis

  • P*Star – Dyadic Analysis

  • Krackplot – Network Visualization

  • Pajek – Network Visualization

  • Personal Network Analysis

    • SPSS/SAS – See Wellman, et al. “How To…” papers

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The Social Network Approach

  • The world is composed of networks - not densely-knit, tightly-bounded groups

  • Networks provide flexible means of social organization and of thinking about social organization

  • Networks have emergent properties of structure and composition

  • Networks are a major source of social capital mobilizable in themselves and from their contents

  • Networks are self-shaping and reflexive

  • Networks scale up to networks of networks

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Networked Individualism

  • Moving from a society bound up in little boxes to a multiple network – and networking – society

  • Networks are a flexible means of social organization

  • Networks are a major source of social capital: mobilizable in themselves & from their contents

  • Networks link:

    • Persons

    • Within organizations

    • Between organizations and institutions

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Little Boxes


Networked Individualism

Barry Wellman co-editor Social Structure: A Network ApproachJAI-Elsevier Press 1998

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Ways of Looking at Networks

  • Whole Networks & Personal Networks

    • Focus on the System or on the Set of Individuals

  • Graphs & Matrices

    • We dream in graphs

    • We analyze in matrices

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Whole Social Networks

  • Comprehensive Set of Role Relationships in a Full System

  • Analyze Each Role Relationship – Can Combine

    • Composition: % Women; Heterogeneity; % Weak Ties

    • Structure: Pattern of Ties

  • Village, Organization, Kinship, Enclaves, World-System

    • Typical Methods: Cliques, Blocks, Centrality, Flows

    • (1)What is the Real Structure of an Organization?

    • (2) How Does Information Flow Through a Village?

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Duality of Persons & Groups

  • People Link Groups

  • Groups Link People

  • An Interpersonal Net is an Interorganizational Net

  • Ronald Breiger 1973

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Neat Whole Network Methods

  • QAP

    • Regression of Matrices

      • Example: Co-Citation (Intellectual Tie)

        Predicts Better than Friendship (Social Tie)

        To Inter-Citation

  • Clustering: High Density; Tight Boundaries (“Groups”)

  • Block Modeling

    • Similar Role Relationships, Not Necessarily Clusters

    • Canada & Mexico in Same Block – US Dominated

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Costs of Whole Network Analysis

  • Requires a Roster of Entire Population

  • Requires (Imposition of) a Social Boundary

    • This May Assume What You Want to Find

  • Hard to Handle Missing Data

  • Needs Special Analytic Packages

    • Becoming Easier to Use

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Personal Social Networks

  • Ptolemaic Ego-Centered View

  • Good for Unbounded Networks

  • Often Uses Survey Research

  • Example:

  • (1)Do Densely-Knit Networks Provide More Support? (structure)

  • (2) Do More Central People Get More Support?(network)

  • (2) Do Women Provide More Support? (composition)

  • (3) Do Face-to-Face Ties Provide More Support Than Internet Ties? (relational)

  • (4) Are People More Isolated Now? (ego)