TASK 2 Modeling & Simulation Fall 2013 Workflow. web software to support decision making in building retrofit projects . Workflow + Case Study: Building101 tools.eebhub.org | developer.eebhub.org. 4 Platform Tools with different analytical capabilities
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TASK 2 Modeling & SimulationFall 2013 Workflow web software to support decision making in building retrofit projects Workflow + Case Study: Building101 tools.eebhub.org | developer.eebhub.org
4 Platform Tools with different analytical capabilities designed to engage the owner throughout a building retrofit lifecycle tools.eebhub.org
Simulation PlatformPEOPLE building owners building designers building auditors building analysts USERS DEVELOPERS Retrofit Manager Energy Audit Tool Inverse Modeling Toolkit Design Advisor CoolVent Urban Weather Generator integrates Portfolio Inverse Modeling iPad Audit Tool Manufacturer Materials Benchmarking Parametric Analysis Toolkit
INPUTS from interface to platform DATA FLOW among platform tools RESULTS displayed in interface
Simulation PlatformDATA 3D geometry, efficiency measures utility data weather shape of building typical room INPUTS Systems Issues Benchmarking Issues + EUI actual SubSystem to refine Energy Use Intensity SubSystems Audit Systems Benchmark Installation Staging OUTPUTS Benchmark with EnergyStar, CBECS, EIA, LEED General System Components Breakdown Targeted SubSystem Replacement Investigation EUI actual vs. simulated Daylighting, Airflow, & all EnergyPlus Files based on climate/budget 1-5 5-15 30-50 40-50 MEASURES >
LITE Inputs & Outputs +overall shape +lat/lon +window percentage utility data gross floor area weather data property import EUI actual PARTIAL Overall Envelope R-value Overall Air Change Rate Candidate Buildings for Retrofit Energy Use Intensity Cooling & Heating & Base Energy ASHRAE: Custom Equation & Regression for Building IBM: Overall Envelope R-value, Overall Air Change Rate Screened List of Candidate Buildings for Retrofit (through interactive triage) Comparisons with EPA EnergyStar Score, PNNL Asset Score Energy Conservation Measures by Budget Range, Climate Zone, Building Type
LITE Screenshots Inverse model calculation of thermal parameters PARTIAL Simulation on thermal parameters Benchmarking & Triage for Retrofit candidate
LITE Details • Specific list of ECM measures currently available for evaluation with this tool: • %Improvement of overall envelope conduction parameter (R Value) • %Improvement of overall convection parameter (air exchange rate) • Additional ECM measures that will be available in December 2013: • %Improvement of wall R-value, window U-value, roof R-value • %Improvement of infiltration • List significant difference of the IBM tool when compared to ASHRAE toolkit for inverse • modeling and unique value that this tool is bringing to the retrofit market place: • Energy balance based inverse modeling computes the two key envelope parameters: • overall envelope conduction parameter (R Value) • overall convection parameter (air exchange rate) • GIS (geographic information systems) based benchmark and visualization tool allows users to • Compare the energy performance of buildings in a portfolio and • Screen a set of buildings as candidates for retrofits using the computed envelope parameters above, building performance indicators and other building characteristics so that the higher level tools (partial, substantial and comprehensive) can focus more on buildings that can substantially save more energy than others through retrofits.
PARTIAL Inputs & Outputs typical room dimensions +people, lighting, occupancy densities +windows, floor thermal mass, insulation Systems Percentage Breakdown Irregularities EUI actual LITE SUBSTANTIAL Heating/cooling/lighting energy usage, occupant comfort, indoor air temperature with natural ventilation, room daylight distribution, lifecycle costs Retro-commissioning Savings Prediction System Components that need maintenance or operational Improvements 5-15 Low > No Cost Measures ECM Categories: O&M, Lighting/Daylighting, Plug/Process, Occupant, Envelope, HVAC
PARTIAL Screenshots LITE SUBSTANTIAL
PARTIAL Details • Specific list of ECM measures currently available for evaluation with this tool: • Structural retrofits: roof and wall insulation R-value, multiple window and glass coating options, multiple thermal mass options • Building controls retrofits: light fixture dimming, heating and cooling set points, ventilation rates • Additional ECM measures that will be available in December 2013: • Improved natural ventilation simulation by incorporating MIT’s CoolVent software into Design Advisor engine • Includes neighborhood weather conditions predicted by Urban Weather Generator • Simplified retro-commissioning energy savings prediction algorithm based on building type, age and location • List significant difference of the Design Advisor tool when compared to Simergy and • unique value that this tool is bringing to the retrofit market place: • Highly intuitive web interface allows first-time users to run a simulation within minutes • Inputs limited to first-order effects and short simulation time allow rapid comparison of multiple retrofit options • Includes retro-commissioning estimation based on historic data for past retro-commissioning before detailed study • Includes weather conditions for specific urban neighborhood
SUBSTANTIAL Inputs & Outputs shape of building HVAC system occupancy schedules +Hourly measured data + AHU supply & return air temp (energy consumption and sensor readings of subsystems) iPad App to collect audit offline SubSystem Problem to focus on Lighting Consumption Electricity Consumption PARTIAL COMPREHENSIVE Promising Systems to fix 30-40 Low > Medium Cost Measures Calibrated Building Schedules, Power, Setpoints, U-values Impact of AHU supply air temperature on overall energy consumption allowing users to evaluate potential optimization of system control parameters ECM Categories: O&M, Lighting/Daylighting, Plug/Process, Occupant, Envelope, HVAC
SUBSTANTIAL Screenshots iPad App PARTIAL COMPREHENSIVE
SUBSTANTIAL Details • Specific list of ECM measures currently available for evaluation with this tool: • 40 calibrated values (left table) • 47 energy conservation measures (right table) • Additional ECM measures that will be available in December 2013: • No additional measures • List significant difference of the Retrofit Analysis tool when compared to SimuWatt& unique value that this tool is bringing to the retrofit market place: • Simpler data collection • Rapid analysis • Automated ECM evaluations
COMPREHENSIVE Inputs & Outputs building shape air tightness level typical room on each facade +owner desired energy conservation measures Building Component Library +3D geometry import SUBSTANTIAL 40-80 Low > High Cost Measures with Retrofit Staging Timeline DAYSIM: Shade Schedule Lighting Shade Schedule, Spatial Daylight Autonomy, Critical Point Illuminance, Occupancy Sensors CONTAM airflow, EnergyPlus energy use (heating/cooling) + all files (.idf, .rad, .sql) for experts ECM Categories: Lighting/Daylighting, Plug/Process, Occupant, Envelope, HVAC
COMPREHENSIVE Daylighting, Airflow, Energy OpenStudio input file created Hourly Shade Operation Schedule Daylight Data File by Orientation Hourly Lighting Power Fraction Building Energy Performance with Integrated DaylightingControls, Airflow, and Contaminant Transport Impacts Annual Zone Lighting Energy & Savings Airflow Calculation (representative spaces on each orientation)
COMPREHENSIVE Screenshots SUBSTANTIAL Building101 Example http://22.214.171.124/tools.eebhub.org/energy-use.php
COMPREHENSIVE Details • Specific list of ECM measures currently available for evaluation with this tool: • Lighting upgrade (EEM Example) • Additional ECM measures that will be available in December 2013: • HVAC: Economizer, Condensing Boiler, More efficient DX cooling system, On demand hot water heaters, Hot water tank insulation • Envelope: Window replacement , Wall insulation • Lighting & Daylighting: CFL lighting , Daylight harvesting • List significant difference of the RMT tool when compared to Asset Rating Tool (including the operational score) & unique value that this tool is bringing to the retrofit market place: • Integrate E+, Daysim, and CONTAM to provide accurate simulations • Daysim: accuracy, daylighting analysis • CONTAM integration (via OpenStudio): airflow and contaminant transport impacts, IAQ technology assessment • Building geometry import: Precise thermal zone, load scheduling • Include best practices from the USGBC database analyses to set realistic expectations for the upper-limit of building performance • Capacity to sequence measures to integrate into long term capital & maintenance plans
Simulation Process Architecture COMMUNICATE ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES CAPTURE ANALYZE • Envelope • Roof • Glazing • Enclosure • Insulation Benchmarking Comparison Feasibility Assessment System Development System Analysis Process Policy Visualization • Benchmarking • Utility Data Entry • Building Type Comparison • Individual ECM Evaluation • Inverse Analysis • Schematics: • System Options • Space by Space Load Analysis • Detailed Feasibility • ECM Evaluation • System Analysis: • Detailed ECM evaluation • System design refinement • Systems interdependency study • Control Strategy • Feasibility: • On site data collection • Baseline Analysis • Individual ECM Evaluation • HVAC Loads • Heating • Cooling • Energy Recovery • Domestic Water Building Dashboards Web Data • Indoor Environmental Quality • DCV • Dedicated Outdoor Air • Infiltration iPad Audit Tool Inverse Modeling Toolkit Parametric Analysis Energy Audit Tool Platform OpenStudio Researcher Visualization Portfolio Inverse Modeling Design Advisor EnergyPlus • Lighting • Daylighting • Sensors • Controls • Artificial Lighting MVD Public Access Data Model Views Airflow MVD Energy MVD DaylightingMVD Audit MVD • Alternative Energy • Solar Hot Water • Solar / PV • Geothermal • Wind Design Visualization Related DOE Efforts Building Component Library EnergyPlus Energy Asset Score OpenStudio Experiential Integrative Design Standard Process (ANSI) KEY EEB Hub Related DOE Efforts Explanations Datahub Simulation Platform DB
Simulation PlatformNarrative The EEB HUB simulation platform is cloud-based software to support decision making in building retrofit projects. Currently, four different levels of retrofits are envisioned including light, partial, substantial and comprehensive. Each of these levels involves simulation tools with different level of complexity, so the output recommended measures for building retrofits have different levels of complexity as well. Specifically, the recommended measures do not necessarily have to be the same for each tool because measures differ by how easily a sub-system performance can be picked out from the rest of the building, the measure cost, the reliability or variance in measure savings, and the degree of skill needed to analyze or carry out a measure. Name: “Lite” or “Benchmark” Users: Building owners Target building stock:All commercial buildings, besides special uses Developer: ASHRAE Inverse modeling toolkit, IBM Inverse Model Goal: To identify overall building performance and benchmark its retrofit potential and screen (i.e. triage) a set of candidate buildings for retrofits. The overall building performance indicators computed includes EUI (overall, heating, cooling), breakdown of overall energy into heating, cooling and base energy. Overall envelope conduction parameter (R Value) and convection parameter (air exchange rate) are computed through inverse modeling. The simulation tool computes the energy savings impact of improved parameters (i.e., retrofits). The GIS (geographic information systems) based visualization and benchmarking tool allows users to compare the energy performance of buildings in a portfolio and screen a set of buildings as candidates for retrofits using the computed parameters, building performance indicators and other building characteristics. The screened set of buildings can be inputted to the higher level tools (partial, substantial and comprehensive) for more detailed modeling of retrofits. Using the screened buildings, the higher level tools can focus more on the buildings that can substantially save more energy than others through retrofits. Measures: (1-5) Basic, generic O&M measures, low/no cost in broad categories. Recommend measure categories for further analyses.
Simulation PlatformNarrative • Name: “Partial” or “Systems Benchmark” • Users: Building designers • Target building stock: All commercial buildings, besides special uses • Developer: MIT Design Advisor Tool • Goal: To refine broad categories into components of buildings systems to be investigated. Identify components that may need maintenance or operational improvements. These can be identified by the discrepancy in performance of building sub-systems in DAT (forward model); if a system is using way more than projected by DAT, it may likely be an operational or equipment malfunction. This level will also recommend measures for small commercial buildings that cannot afford an audit. Break out further sub-systems that may have lucrative savings opportunities into these categories: • O&M • Lighting, Daylighting • Plug & Process (subgroups?) • Occupant • Envelope (walls, roofs, fenestration breakout?) • “H” of HVAC • “V” of HVAC • “AC” of HVAC • (Include comparison of HVAC distribution vs. equipment performance?) • Measures: (5-15) O&M/Retro-commissioning measures that are low-no cost, as identified by discrepancy between tools. (20-40) low-medium cost measures with high likelihood for savings. Recommend high-cost measures or measures with highly variable savings for further analysis.
Simulation PlatformNarrative • Name: “Substantial” or “SubSystems Audit” • Users: Building auditors • Target building stock: Medium commercial buildings and small commercial buildings with potential large savings opportunities • Developer: UTRC model & PSU data collection for Energy Audit Tool • Goal: The goal at this level is to take the sub-systems analysis from the previous tools, and use that information to target building sub-systems to further investigate. The audit will be to capture remaining O&M issues, building geometry and zoning, building control and occupancy schedule, operational strategy, controls, and equipment capacity and efficiencies (eg, lighting density and type, equipment sizes on largest equipment, R-values and wall/window/roof types). The auditor can collect particular data for promising sub-systems, eg. window geometry, shading, etc. for daylighting analysis. The audit is only a “snap-shot” in time, so the auditor won’t be able to tell how the building changes in operation between days (weekday vs. weekend) and between seasons. The categories of measures here are: • O&M • Lighting, Daylighting • Plug & Process (subgroups?) • Occupant • Envelope (walls, roofs, fenestration breakout?) • “H” of HVAC • “V” of HVAC • “AC” of HVAC • Measures: Identify and recommend O&M, retro-commissioning measures, control schedule, and related changes, particularly ones that may be more expensive than the previous tool. (30-50) low-medium cost measures and high-cost measures with reliable savings. Recommend high-cost measures with large potential for savings, but have highly variable savings, for further analysis.
Simulation PlatformNarrative • Name: “Comprehensive” or “Longitudinal Systems Analysis and Integrated Planning” • Users: Building analysts • Target building stock: Medium commercial buildings with potential for major savings opportunities, or facilities with a dedicated facility manager that can manage a strategic retrofit plan • Developer: PSU and UMd Retrofit Manager Tool • Goal: To rigorously evaluate the savings potential for several possible energy efficiency measures, and to coordinate measures into a retrofit management plan. The tool will start by asking which measures to investigate first, rather than asking for building information. Most of the default data should already be processed from the audit. Once EEMs are selected, the tool will ask further highly specific information on that sub-system or component to improve model accuracy. For example, HVAC measures will probably need mechanical drawings and equipment specifications, and HVAC zoning. Daylighting measures will need information on window placement, shading, glazing type, luminance levels, room layout from a BIM model, and schedules. The tool will provide the output capability for an .idf and other files so that experienced energy auditors, engineers, and facility energy mangers can get the full functionality of energy simulation tools. • The categories are the same as the previous tool, without O&M, however the distinction is that the categories are organized by EEMs, rather than listing building data needed for an accurate model. • Lighting, Daylighting • Plug & Process (subgroups?) • Occupant • Envelope (walls, roofs, fenestration breakout?) • “H” of HVAC • “V” of HVAC • “AC” of HVAC • Measures: (40-80) measures, including high-cost measures that have been further analyzed. Focus capacity on staging of retrofit measures to reduce capital cost of eventual HVAC equipment replacement. Provide enhanced costing and budgeting features.