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Bolsheviks introduced new values. Why did the Bolsheviks oppose the Church ? After the revolution its property was confiscated and in 1921 to 1922 its leaders were persecuted and 8000 people killed. Bolsheviks introduced the most liberal divorce law and abortion law in Europe

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bolsheviks introduced new values
Bolsheviks introduced newvalues.
  • Why did the Bolsheviks oppose the Church?
  • After the revolution its property was confiscated and in 1921 to 1922 its leaders were persecuted and 8000 people killed.
  • Bolsheviks introduced the most liberal divorce law and abortion law in Europe
    • Did these laws increase the freedom of women as they were supposed to?
  • The freedom of the arts was soon censored by Glavlit (1922). Why censorship?
what has become of the proletarian freedom at lenins death
What has become of the proletarian freedom at Lenins death
  • Limited political rights
    • One party-state
    • party institutions dominate state institutions.
    • Politburo replaces the Sovnarkom.
    • Party members 500 thousand.
    • ban on factionalism limited political debate.
    • The local party replaces the soviets.
the death of lenin
The death of Lenin.
  • Lenin didn’t appoint a successor.
    • Was he supposed to?
    • In his Testament he damaged all the possible successors. Why?
    • The power struggle began in 1922 after Lenins first stroke.
    • The contenders were Stalin, Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Bukharin, All members of the politburo.
constitution of 24
Constitution of 24
  • Constitution of 24:
  • Presidium
  • Excutive central committee
  • All-Union Congress of soviets
    • Republican soviets
      • Provincial soviets
        • District soviets
          • Local soviets
stalin played on the tension within the politburo
Stalin played on the tension within the Politburo

The left opposition wanted immediate industrialisation

The rightist wanted to develope the NEP-policy for other twenty years.

Trotsky (permanent revolution)




Stalin 25-26

Stalin 23-25


Stalin 27-29


why did stalin succeed
Why did Stalin Succeed
  • He was general secretary of the party’s central committee.
    • He exercised control over the party machinery
  • Put himself at the center of the cult of Lenin
  • Old dedicated proletarian party member
  • His theory of socialism in one country had more appeal then Trotskys “permanent revolution.
stalins revolution
Stalins revolution
  • Rapid industrialization by the five years plans
    • End of NEP Abolition of State ownership of industry and trade
    • Collectivization of agriculture
  • Created a strong centralized state
    • Cult of Stalin
    • Purges
stalins government
Stalins Government
  • The real political forces
    • The party
      • 3,5 mil. members 1933, only half workers
    • The political police NKVD
      • performed the dirty work of the party and government (central role in purges)
    • The Red Army (but party had always authority over the army)
why did stalin industrialize
Why did Stalin industrialize
  • Planned and centralized economy to make the Soviet Union af force comparable with the United States
  • To defend Russia according to Stalins policy of socialism in one country
  • To appeal to the proletariat
  • To beat the rightists (Bukharin)
  • To modernize agriculture
the five year plans
The Five-year Plans
  • What kind of Plans were these Five years plans? What were the weaknesses of those plans.
  • Stakanov movement.
  • Were the plans a success?
  • Was this industrialisation “from above”?
  • Lebeshev, 1936we do like Stachanov!Stachanov, a miner achieving incredibly high production figures, is held up as shining example for workers throughout the soviet union. Here he is emulated by Azerbaijani cotton workers.
the five year plans12
The Five-year Plans
  • Three plans before WW2
  • First plan oct 1928 to dec 1931.
  • Plans formed the administrative-command economy.
  • With production quotas the direction was set for the economy
  • Industrialisation from above
the giants of the five year plan
The giants of the Five Year Plan
  • 1933. Stalin towers over the dam in the river Dnepr and the industrial complexes in Magnitogorsk and Stalinsk and says: 'The results of the Five Year Plan show that the working class is not only capable of destroying the old, but also of building the new'.
first second and third plans
First, second and third plans
  • First plan emphasis on raw materials and energy resources.
  • Second more emphasis on building factories and producing investment goods (tractors, trucks). Stakhanov-movement
  • Third emphasis supposed to be on consumer goods (toilet paper, soap) but WW2 forced government to turn to arms.
first five year plan
First five year plan
  • Full speed ahead for the fourth and final year of the Five Year Plan!This was totally unrealistic
social realism
  • Konstantin Vyalov, 1932Let's consolidate the victory of socialism in the USSR! Let's technically reconstruct the country's economy!
effect of industrialization
Effect of industrialization
  • Industrial output grew 4-fold. Check statistics. Electricity 9-fold
  • 11 mill. Workers 1928 – 27 mill. 1937
  • Wage equality abolished
  • New elite of specialists and managers, often of worker origin.
  • Urbanization
  • Russia becomes a world power
    • Check historical consequences






1928 Actual production

1932 Actual production

1933 Actual production

Production units

Electricity Coal Pig iron Steel Wool cloth

(billion KW) (million tons) (million tons) (million tons) (million meters)

living standards
Living standards
  • The industrial worker had to bow to the needs of a rapid industrialization from above
      • Trade unions organs of the state
      • absenteeism punishable
      • internal passport system (like in tsarist times)
      • subsidized canteen meels
      • free medical attention
      • decline in living standards at a low in 1933
      • housing shortage
      • industrialization emphasized heavy industry instead of consumer goods
      • stakhanovites got higher wages
criticism of canteens
Criticism of canteens
  • The quality of food and service in communal eating houses and canteens is denounced in this unusually explicit poster. Even the 'completely unacceptable sanitary conditions' in some establishments are mentioned. 1931
why collectivisation
Why Collectivisation
  • Growing dissatisfaction among the working class and the communist party rank and file with NEP?
  • Procurement crisis 1927
  • Class war:
    • Gov vs peas or rich peas vs poor
  • From 1925 industrialization was main party priority.
  • The Five-year-plan meant industrial growth and extraction of grain to pay for machines.
we kolkhoz farmers are liquidating the kulaks as a class on the basis of complete collectivisation
"We kolkhoz farmers are liquidating the kulaks as a class, on the basis of complete collectivisation."
collectivisation started in 28
Collectivisation started in 28.
  • The state grain shortage 1927 forced the state to do something.
  • Stalin and his supporters opted for collective farms:
      • land held communally or owned by state
      • large units of lands for mechanized agriculture
      • labour available for cities
      • grain becomes available
      • easier political control of peasants (elimination of the Kulaks.)
process of collectivisation
Process of collectivisation
  • No response to voluntary collectivisation 1928
  • Peasants didnt like it. Why?
  • Free market in grain abolished 1929
  • Stalin calls for the liquidation of the kulaks as a class”. What is the meaning of this.
  • “Party leaders call for mass collectivisation.”
  • “Communists start to enforce collectivisation.”
  • Stalin blames local officials for using force
1937 coll was done
1937 coll. was done
  • Was collectivisation a success? Politically? Economicly?
  • What was the cost of collectivisation?
cultural revolution 29 32
Cultural revolution 29-32
  • Workers are encouraged to:
    • enter the party
    • criticize non-party specialists
    • seek education
    • “Far from being a totaliarian puppet master dominating Soviet society [Stalin] was more of a political surfer who knew how to recognise and ride the waves of social tension which he had sometimes encouraged but not created.” Whittock p. 37. What is he talking about? Would intentionalist agree?
culture education and religion
Culture, education and religion
  • During the Lenin and Stalin period we see basicly two distinct phasis:
  • The twenties: A mixture of experiment, freedom and repression.
  • The Thirties: After Stalin was firmly in control we see the needs of the state, the economy and the Stalin cult direct this field.
the twenties
The twenties
  • Why did the Bolsheviks oppose the Church?
  • After the revolution its property was confiscated and in 1921 to 1922 its leaders were persecuted and 8000 people killed. The church lost control of schools.
  • Bolsheviks introduced the most liberal divorce law and abortion law in Europe and divorce and abortion rates became the highest in Europe.
    • Did these laws increase the freedom of women as they were supposed to?
  • The freedom of the arts was soon censored by Glavlit (1922). Why censorship?
  • The campaign to eliminate illiteracy among workers.
the stalin period
The Stalin period
  • Family values introduced after 36- abortion becomes criminal offence (except for medical reasons) and divorce made more difficult. Still women received education and jobs in industry.
  • After brief attach on schools and teachers as bourgeois compulsory education was intruduced 1930. Illiteracy decreased from 75% 1917 to virtualy none 1940. 70.000 public libraries.
  • National minorities had right to education in their own language.
  • In science there were political blindroads like Lysenkos marxist geneology.
stalin period in culture
Stalin period in culture
  • Some of the church former autonomy restored during the war.
  • Social realism became the official line in arts. Art serving societal goals. During Stalins time emphasis changes from the common worker to the manager. No great achivements in art.
  • The cult of Stalin and increased nationalism, especially during the war.
campaign for literacy
Campaign for literacy
  • Dors, 1936We will change the Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan into a republic of abundant literacyCampaign against illiteracy in Azerbaijan. In the background the two natural resources of the region: oil and cotton.
the great purge 34 38
The Great Purge 34-38
  • Purges and terror was not new.
    • Kronstadt rebellion.
    • 116.000 expelled from party 1929
  • Still terror in Lenins time was usually against clear opponents of the party and usually under circumstances of war or threat to the bolsheviks.
  • Stalins terror was when the party was firmly in control
  • What is terror?
the course of the purges
The course of the purges
  • 1934 Kirovs murder is used as a pretext for establishing the machinery for terror and purges of minor figures in the party. Stalins part in Kirovs murder is not proven.
  • 1936 Show trials of major figures like Kamenev and Zinoviev. They admit to counter revolutionary activity. Still Bukharin and Rykov were aquitted
  • 1937-38 The great wave of terror, Purges in the army for example. Ends with the execution of Yezhov, head of NKVD, the main purger.
did terror hurt ussr
Did Terror hurt USSR
  • Stalins position was unchallenged
  • All the bolsheviks of the revolution were dead.
  • The army was almost without leadership
  • Stifling of creativity and discussion in the USSR in administration, army and industry.
      • The victims often managers and experts.
  • Casualities:
      • three million people killed.
      • 2 million in labor camps each year
      • 23 thousand army officer killed
  • Still USSR survived the acid test of 41
what was the reason
What was the reason?
  • There are debates about this?
    • Stalin wants to be an absolute leader of the Soviet union and purges were supposed to crush any opposition or possible opposition inside the party (Kirov), bureucracy and the army. (Khrushchev 1956)
    • This explanation puts much emphasis on that the purges were controlled from above. This is the totalitarian explanation.
alternative explanations
Alternative explanations
  • Why was the Terror started:
    • Fascist threat made Stalin afraid of enemy spies and army Coup (possibly rightfully)
    • Solution to party rivalries (the arrest of Piatakov and Yezhov becomes chief of secret police) Still approved by Stalin.
    • Stalin also used the murder of Kirov (wether or not Stalin was involved in it) to purge the party.
    • Attack and criticism on party secretaries by the center unleashes a wave of spontanious terror.
    • Once the terror is started it has the tendency to get out of hand, lawless government, lawless people.
alternative cont
Alternative cont.
  • Even though Stalin did not control the whole Terror he triggered it by some key decisions like backing Ezhov.
  • And when Stalin wanted to stop the terror he had the power because when he fired Ezhov 1938 it was a sign and terror stopped.
  • Stalin was the leader of the terror but maybe he did not plan the whole thing. It was a “licence to kill” to the rank and file of the party. Young party members removing the old
foreign policy 1917 41
Foreign policy 1917-41
  • Isolation 1917-21
      • Soviet Union not at Versailles or in League of Nations
      • Comintern: Links with communist abroad. Communists are told not to work with social democrats.
  • End of isolation
      • The world revolution did not come
      • Treaty of Rapallo 1922. Trade and secret military cooperation with Germany
      • Relations with other countries developed. Still suspicion.
stalin and the fascist threat
Stalin and the fascist threat
  • Stalin was among the first to understand the threat from Hitler.
    • Joined league of nations 1934
    • Communists instructed to work with socialists
    • Supported republicans in the Spanish civil war 1936.
    • Stalin was not invited to the Munich conference 1938
    • Stalin thinks that the western powers will do nothing to stop Hitler and are directing Hitler to the east.
    • During the spring of 1939 Stalin tries to approach France and Britain for union against Hitler but he is turned down.
stalins appeasement with hitler
Stalins Appeasement with Hitler
  • To insure the Soviet Union a breathing space Stalin Concludes a non-agression pact with Hitler in 1939.
    • Stalin takes half of Polland, the Baltic states and attempts to take the border regions in Finnland.
    • They win the winter war with Finland but only after loosing 200 000 soldiers.
    • Hitler and the west think the soviet army is not worth much.
    • Relation cool after Stalin takes parts of Rumenia not mentioned in the non-agression pact.
the great fatherland war
The Great Fatherland War
  • Just after Stalin signed the neutrality pact with Japan 1941
  • Hitler invades Russia 22. June 1941. Operation nicknamed Barbarossa.
    • The ultimate goal of Hitler, lebensraum in the east + hatred of communism
  • The the three pronged Blitzkrieg was answered by the “scorched earth” policy.
  • The germans made huge advances but were not able to take Leningrad or Moscow before chrismas
the russian war effort
The russian war effort
  • Why did the russians fight at all?
    • Patriotism
    • Cruelty of Germans
  • How was Russia saved
    • Factories were moved east
    • Bad weather winter 41-42
    • Lend and lease aid from USA
the germans ran out of luck 42
The Germans ran out of luck 42
  • The offensive against Leningrad continued but the russians kept germans away.
  • The southern offensive towards the oilfields in Baku was halted when the Germans were trapped by Stalingrad.
  • Part of the german army had to surrender by Stalingrad in February 1943
    • One of the most decisive victories in the war, especially psychologically.
    • The Battle of Kursk in 1943 further sealed the fate of the Germans.
    • At this time the russians are occupying 70% of german forces.
different interpretations
Different interpretations
  • Check the list on page 45 and check if you find any Revisionist interpretations in the textbook?
was russia totalitarian
Was Russia totalitarian?
  • Totalitarian system :
    • Centralized government, single party.
    • All political opposition supressed
    • Media and social organizations used to control peoples minds and actions
    • Propaganda, personal cult, censorship, purges.
    • State intervention in the economy.