Hydrogen Fuel Cells April 5, 2004. Gary Flomenhoft, BSME, MAPP, CEE Research Associate Gund Institute, SNR Owner: InnEVations.com. ENERGY STORAGE. Gasoline:C 8 H 18. ENERGY STORAGE. Source: USABC and others. LITHIUM-ION BATTERY. SOURCE: ELECTRIC STORAGE ASSOC.
Hydrogen Fuel Cells April 5, 2004 Gary Flomenhoft, BSME, MAPP, CEE Research Associate Gund Institute, SNR Owner: InnEVations.com
ENERGY STORAGE Gasoline:C8H18
ENERGY STORAGE Source: USABC and others
LITHIUM-ION BATTERY SOURCE: ELECTRIC STORAGE ASSOC.
COMPOSITE FLYWHEELS SOURCE: ELECTRIC STORAGE ASSOC.
SUPERCAPACITORS SOURCE: ELECTRIC STORAGE ASSOC.
ZINC-AIR FUEL CELL SOURCE: ELECTRIC STORAGE ASSOC.
MECHANICAL RECHARGE ZINC-AIR FUEL CELL SOURCE: METALLIC POWER.COM
ENERGY DENSITY BY WEIGHT AND VOLUME SOURCE: ELECTRIC STORAGE ASSOC.
CARB DEFINITIONS CLEANER
FUEL CELL VEHICLES-2004 FORD The Ford Focus FCV fuel cell system is efficient, quiet, and produces zero emissions. Ford has announced plans to have a three year demonstration program of 5-10 fleet vehicles in Vancouver, Canada in 2004.
FUEL CELL VEHICLES-2003 Honda Honda is delivering a family of new FCX fuel-cell vehicles to its first customer, the city of Los Angeles. Honda plans to lease approximately 30 fuel-cell cars in California and Japan during the next several years. The fuel-cell itself is propelled by electricity generated by a hydrogen-oxygen chemical reaction—and its only emission, remarkably, is water vapor.
FUEL CELL VEHICLES-2003 TOYOTA (NOT AVAILABLE) Its only exhaust is water vapor. Its secret? A hydrogen fuel cell that harnesses the electricity of separated atoms and molecules as they strive to be electrically balanced. Developed entirely in-house, FCHV-4 shows Toyota on the leading edge of fuel-cell technology.
FUEL CELL VEHICLES-NISSAN X-TRAIL FCV Nissan is actively developing fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) that have low environmental impact and save energy. Commercialization is scheduled for 2003.(?????)
FUEL CELL VEHICLES-GM PROTOTYPE The Hy-wire has no internal combustion engine, instrument panel, brake or accelerator pedals – but it does have ample power supplied by a GM fuel cell that runs on hydrogen.
HYDROGEN FUEL CELL OPERATION SOURCE: Schatz Energy Lab Humboldt State U.
PEM HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS SOURCE: Schatz Energy Lab Humboldt State U. PEM= Proton Exchange Membrane (“Nafion”tm)
SOME SURPRISING FACTS ABOUT HYDROGEN Q1) IS HYDROGEN A revolutionary NEW ENERGY SOURCE? Where does hydrogen come from? Fossil: nat gas, propane, gasoline, methanol Renewable: electric wind, solar, etc. electrolyze water Methane (CH4), methanol(CH3OH), ammonia(NH3?) A) HYDROGEN STORES & TRANSPORTS ENERGY. A CARRIER NOT A SOURCE. Q2) WHICH IS MORE EFFICIENT, FUEL CELL OR BATTERIES? A) BATTERIES
H2 Fuel Cell Efficiency INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE oil (gasoline) -> IC engine 15% BATTERY POWERED ELECTRIC VEHICLE Oil-> power plant -> electricity ~=45% transmission~=80% battery charging ~=80% electric drive system ~=80% .45 x .8 x .8 x .8 = 23% FUEL CELL POWERED ELECTRIC VEHICLE Oil-> power plant-> electricity~=45% electricity transmission ~=80% H2 electrolyzer max efficiency ~=70% H2 fuel cell max efficiency ~=50% Electric drive system ~=80% .45 x .8 x .7 x .5 x .8 = 10%
SOLAR FUEL CELLS ? SOURCE: Schatz Energy Lab Humboldt State U. last