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Emergency preparedness and response and public information in Finland VN/RA/01 Task 1&2 Workshop Hanoi, October 2012 Ilari Aro STUK. Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety, General Safety Requirements Part 1.
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Emergency preparedness and response and public information in Finland VN/RA/01 Task 1&2 Workshop Hanoi, October 2012 Ilari Aro STUK
Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety, General Safety Requirements Part 1 • Requirement 8: Emergency preparedness and response: The government shall make provision for emergency preparedness to enable a timely and effective response in a nuclear or radiological emergency. • 2.24. In preparing an emergency response plan and in the event of an emergency, the regulatory body shall advise the government and competent authorities, and shall provide expert services (e.g. services for radiation monitoring and risk assessment for actual and expected future radiation risks) in accordance with the responsibilities assigned to it.
International Conventions • Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (1963, 1988, 1997) • Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (27 October 1986) • Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (28 February 1987) • Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (8 February 1987) • Convention on Nuclear Safety (24 October 1996) • Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (Opened for signature 29 September 1997)
Convention on Early Notification • Objective: to provide relevant information about nuclear accidents as early as possible in order that transboundary radiological consequences can be minimized • Scope: any accident involving facilities or activities from which a radioactive release occurs or is likely to occur and which may result in an transboundary release that could be of radiological safety significance for another state • Facility/activity: nuclear reactor; fuel cycle or waste handling facility or respective transportation and storage; manufacture, use, transport or disposal of radioisotopes
Convention on Early Notification: Obligations of Contracting Parties A State Party having a nuclear or radiological accident going on in its territory shall • make known to the IAEA and other States Parties competent authorities and points of contact • notify those States which may be affected the nature, time of occurrence and exact location of the nuclear accident • provide promptly the States affected with such available information relevant to minimize the radiological consequences • respond promptly to a request for further information or consultations sought by affected State Party • ensure the provision of information: facility or activity, cause and foreseeable development, meteorological and hydrological conditions, off-site protective measures taken or planned • to supplement information at appropriate intervals
Convention on Early Notification: Obligations to the IAEA • to ensure confidentiality of confident information (applies also to other State Parties) • to maintain an up-to-date list of points of contact and provide it to others, • to assist non-nuclear countries in investigations concerning radiation monitoring systems • depositary functions
Convention on Assistance in the case of Nuclear Accident Objectives: • Establish an international framework to facilitate promt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency to mitigate its consequences • States Parties shall co-operate between themselves and with the IAEA to facilitate prompt assistance • States Parties may agree on bilateral arrangements for preventing or minimizing injury and damage Scope: • In the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, whether or not such an accident or emergency takes place in one’s own country • A State Party may call for assistance from: • any other state • IAEA or other international intergovernmental organizations where appropriate
IAEA Requirements and guidance • Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency Safety RequirementsSafety Standards Series No. GS-R-2Date of Issue: November, 2002. • Arrangements for Preparedness for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency Safety GuideSafety Standards Series No. GS-G-2.1Date of Issue: July, 2007. • Planning and Preparing for Emergency Response to Transport Accidents Involving Radioactive Material Safety GuideSafety Standards Series No. TS-G-1.2 (ST-3)Date of Issue: August, 2002. • DS44 - Criteria for Use in Planning Response to Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies
International assistance plans • EPR-ENATOM, Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual, English, Full Text, (File Size: 2782 KB). Date of Issue: February 2007. • Emergency Communications with the IAEA Incident and Emergency Centre - Contact details, checklists and forms, EPR-ENATOM, Attachment 1 (2007), restricted distribution, for official use only, IAEA, (February 2007)
National assistance plans - training material • Method for Developing Arrangements for Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency - EPR-METHOD (2003) (Updating IAEA-TECDOC-953), Date of Issue: November 2003. • Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency, Date of Issue: November 2006.Preparation, Conduct and Evaluation of Exercises to Test Preparedness for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency, Date of Issue: May 2005. • Preparation, Conduct and Evaluation of Exercises to Test Preparedness for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency - Training Materials, CD-ROM. Date of Issue: June 2006. • Generic Procedures for Medical Response During a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency, Date of Issue: July 2005. • Medical Preparedness and Response Educational Material, CD-ROM. Date of Issue: January 2003.
IAEA GS-R-2: IDENTIFYING, NOTIFYING AND ACTIVATING • When circumstances necessitate an emergency response, operators shall promptly determine the appropriate emergency class or the level of emergency response and shall initiate the appropriate on-site actions. The operator shall notify and provide updated information to the off-site notification point. • Upon notification of a nuclear or radiological emergency warranting an off-site response, the off-site notification point shall promptly notify all appropriate off-site response organizations. Upon notification, the off-site response organizations shall promptly initiate the preplanned and co-ordinated response appropriate to the emergency class or the level of emergency. • Appropriate emergency response actions shall be initiated promptly upon the receipt of a notification from another State or information from the IAEA of a notification relating to an actual or potential transnational emergency that could affect the State or its nationals.
International notification • In the event of a transnational emergency the notifying State shall promptly notify directly or through the IAEA those States that may be affected. The notifying State shall also notify the IAEA of a transnational emergency upon recognition or when it notifies another State. The notifying State shall provide information concerning the nature of the emergency and any potential transnational consequences and shall respond to requests from other States and from the IAEA for information with the intent of minimizing the consequences. • Notification points shall be established that are responsible for receiving emergency notifications of an actual or potential nuclear or radiological emergency. The notification points shall be continuously available to receive any notification or request for assistance and to respond promptly or to initiate an off-site response.
IAEA and neighbouring state notification • The State shall make known to the IAEA and to other States, directly or through the IAEA, its single warning point of contact responsible for receiving emergency notifications and information from other States and information from the IAEA. This warning point shall be continuously available to receive any notification, request for assistance or request for verification of information from the IAEA and to initiate promptly a response or verification. The State shall promptly inform the IAEA and, directly or through the IAEA, relevant States of any changes that may occur in respect of the point of contact. • The State shall make arrangements for promptly notifying and providing relevant information to, directly or through the IAEA, those States that may be affected by a transnational emergency. The State shall make arrangements for promptly responding to requests from other States or from the IAEA for information in respect of a transnational emergency, in particular with regard to minimizing any transnational consequences. • Arrangements shall be made for promptly and directly notifying any State in which urgent protective action should be taken, including States with erritory within the precautionary action zone or urgent protective action planning zone.
Public information and warnings • Upon declaration of an emergency class the public shall be promptly warned of the emergency and informed of the actions that they should take. There shall be no undue delay that could jeopardize the effectiveness of the protective actions. • For facilities in threat category I or II arrangements shall be made, before and during operations, to provide information on the response to a nuclear or radiological emergency to permanent, transient and special population groups or those responsible for them and to special facilities within the precautionary action zone and the urgent protective action planning zone. This shall include information on the nature of the hazard, on how people will be warned or notified and on the actions to be taken in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency. The information shall be provided in the languages mainly spoken in these emergency zones and the effectiveness of this public information programme shall be periodically assessed. • Arrangements shall be made for facilities in threat category I or II to provide promptly a warning and instruction to permanent, transient and special population groups or those responsible for them and to special facilities in the precautionary action zone and the urgent protective action planning zone upon declaration of an emergency class. This shall include instructions in the languages mainly spoken in these emergency zones on the immediate actions to be taken.
EMERCON - National Warning Point • To activate the relevant national emergency response organizations on receipt from the IAEA’s Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC) of a notification or advisory message or request for information or assistance in the event of a nuclear or radiological incident or emergency. • The NWP communication centre must be staffed 24 hours a day and must have suitable equipment, working and maintained, to receive from the IEC by fax, telephone or email notifications, advisory messages or requests for information and/or assistance in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency. • The NWP communication centre should keep an up-to-date communication list for channeling incoming information or requests from the IEC and activating the relevant parts of the national emergency response system. • An emergency plan and associated procedures specifying the actions to be taken after receiving an EMERCON form or a request for assistance or information should be in place. • Staff at the NWP communication centre should be familiar with the EMERCON forms. • The communication centre should have an effective mechanism for responding to messages or requests in English, including maintaining a list of persons who can understand and speak English. • The NWP should carry out regular tests and drills.
EMERCON - National Warning Point: guidance • Keep a log of all incoming communications, irrespective of whether they are received via telephone or fax. Process the message according to whether it is an EMERCON message, an EXERCISE message or routine correspondence from the IEC. • Receive and log any EMERCON message. • Speedily process the EMERCON message according to the following: • a) EMERCON request for information about a domestic emergency • b) EMERCON forms SRF or GENF • c) EMERCON request for advice or assistance • Activate appropriate organizations within your State. Confirm that appropriate organizations have activated. • If the IEC telephones, confirm receipt and legibility of written messages.
EMERCON - National Competent Authority • Main tasks: to notify the IAEA of a significant transboundary release under the Early Notification Convention; 2) to notify the IAEA of a transnational emergency; 3) to provide advisory messages and follow-up information to the IAEA; and 4) to respond to requests for information from the IAEA Cases to be handled • Emergency at nuclear power station • Radiation incidents: missing dangerous source, space object re-entry, elevated radiation levels of unknown origin; other radiation emergency or threat • Requesting assistance under the Assistance Convention
EMERCON FORMS • SRF - Initial and follow-up information about a nuclear or radiological incident or emergency (except for a general emergency at a nuclear installation) • GENF - Initial and follow-up information a general emergency at a nuclear installation • MPA - Information about principal off-site measurements and protective actions (planned or taken) in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency
Legislation Emergency Powers Act (1991) • gives an obligation to all authorities in Finland to plan for emergencies • plans should include all types of crisis situations: of civil and military origin, minor and severe events Each authority decides upon measures concerning their own administration responsibilities • decisions base on recommendations given by STUK - STUK gives recommendations to the authorities on local, on provincial and on national level
Responsibilities for informing the public • The authority in charge is also responsible for informing the public. • Other authorities involved in the emergency provide information and instruction regarding their own sphere of responsibility. STUK issues information concerning the accident, radiation situation and the impact of the situation on public health and safety. • If needed, the Information Unit of the Council of State assists in coordination.
Coordinationof activities during emergencies On national level: • Ministry of the Interior calls a group for coordination purposes - all organisations on national level taking care of situation send their representatives On provincial level: • the State Provincial Offices supervise rescue activities On local level: • decisions and instructions pertaining to the rescue activities; administration sectors of municipalities are represented in groups gathered during emergencies
Responsibilities of some governmental authorities STUK • situation reports • safety assessments • recommendations and advice for protective measures Ministry of the Interior • protection of population, rescue operations Ministry of Social Affairs and Health • safety of public health Defence Forces • cooperation in rescue operations Finnish Meteorological Institute • dispersion calculations, weather service • Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry • restrictions concerning agricultural production • Finnish Food Safety Authority • processing, delivery and retail of foodstuffs • Ministry of Employment and the Economy • international trade • emergency supply • Ministry of Transport and Communication • communication, traffic, transportation • Ministry for Foreign Affairs • informing foreign embassies in Finland and domestic embassies abroad
Decree of the Ministry of the Interior Gives list of topics to be included in the plan for nuclear or radiological emergencies • tasks and responsibilities of authorities • notifications and activation of emergency organisations • management of rescue operations • arrangements for radiation monitoring • protective measures • informing the public and the media prior and during an emergency • training programme (including exercises) of emergency staff The public has to be given a possibility for commenting the plan and information on the content of the plan has to be delivered to the public.
Loviisa NPP Emergency planning zones (approx 20 km) • Olkiluoto NPP • Eurajoki • Rauma • Luvia Olkiluoto NPP Olkiluoto NPP • Loviisa NPP • Loviisa • Pernaja • Ruotsinpyhtää • Pyhtää Loviisa NPP
Decree of the Ministry of the Interior • regarding information to the public, directive 89/618/Euratom is followed; prior information should continuously updated and delivered to the public every third year • emergency plans should contain detailed training programme of staff • emergency plans should be tested full scale exercises every third year; the State Province Offices responsible for organising
Legislation Act on Rescue Services (1999; revision 2003) • obligation for emergency planning Decree on Rescue Services (1999; revision 2003) • description of responsibilities of various organisations ”… STUK is responsible for maintaining nationwide radiation monitoring, for issuing notifications, warnings and recommendations for protective measures in cooperation with other counterparts and for taking care of safety assessment of radiation situations…” Ministry of the Interior issues decrees and guides concerning planning for nuclear or radiological emergencies. • Decree of the Ministry of the Interior on planning for nuclear and radiological emergencies and informing the public of radiation hazards • VAL Guides (prepared by STUK, put in force by MoI) • Protective actions in nuclear or radiological emergency • Guide for rescue authorities for monitoring external dose rate • Manual radiation monitors; guide for verification of measurements, and inspection and quality requirements for monitors
STUK’s tasks during emergencies Receiving of an alert; activating response Collection of information and evaluation of possible development Safety assessment Recommendations and advice for protective measures Dissemination of information
STUK is the National Warning Point Domestic nuclear installations International agreements Contacts to NPPs close to Finland Radiation measurements Domestic partners Other contacts STUK Verification of the alert signal Activating response
Duty system Two experts on duty all the time; both in his / her turn one week: • contact person for notifications, alerts or other signals (“expert on duty) • contact person for media (“duty officer for public information”)
Activation of response in Finland • Ministry of the Interior • Ministry of Social Affairs and Health • Finnish Meteorological Institute • Defence Forces STUK Crisis Management Centre Information of the Council Unit of the of State (24 h) Council of State Emergency response Members of the Council organisations of ministries State
STUK’S organisation during emergencies ACCIDENT ASSESSMENT - assessment and development of event - releases into environment - INES • MANAGEMENT • STUK’s decisions & statements regarding e.g. • safety assessment • - recommendations • RADIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES • - defining area of potential hazard • evaluation of exposure to population • proposals for protective measures • - environmental monitoring SECRETARIAT - assistance of the management - communication with counterparts ADVICE FOR AUTHORITIES, TRADE AND COMMERCE, AND CITIZENS PUBLIC INFORMATION - contacts with media INTERNAL SERVICES
STUK’s preparedness manual • Emergency plan • Regulations related to preparedness • reaching STUK’s staff, unannounced tests • obligations of expert on duty; nominated persons for experts on duty • obligations of duty officers for public information; nominated duty officers • Procedures for emergencies
Dissemination of information Accident situation what has happened Authorities Other counterparts Experts Neighbouring countries IAEA, EU Media Citizens Radiation situation actions needed
Siting: Emergencyzones: plantsite • A nuclearpowerplantsiteextends to about a kilometre'sdistancefrom the facility. It is defined as an areawhereonlypowerplantrelatedactivitiesareallowed as a rule. Permanentsettlement is prohibited and onlyverylimitedemployeeaccommodationorrecreationalsettlement is allowed. The licenseeresponsible for the operation of the nuclearpowerplantshallhaveauthority of decisionoverallactivities in the area and shallbeable to removeunauthorisedindividualsfrom the site, ifnecessary, orpreventsuchindividualsfromentering it. The plantsitemaycontainothernon-facilityrelatedactivitiesprovidedthattheydonotpose a threat to plantsafety.
Siting: Emergencyzones: protectivezone • The plantsite is surroundedby a protectivezoneextending to about a fivekilometres' distancefrom the facility. Landuserestrictionsare in forcewithin the zone. Densesettlement and hospitalsorfacilitiesinhabitedorvisitedby a considerablenumber of peoplearenotallowedwithin the zone. The zonemaynotcontainsuchsignificantproductiveactivities as couldbeaffectedby an accident at the nuclearpowerplant. The number of permanentinhabitantsshouldnotbe in excess of 200. The number of personstakingpart in recreationalactivitiesmaybehigher, providedthat an appropriaterescueplancanbedrawnup for the area.
Siting: Emergencyzones: emergencyplanningzone • In accordancewith the Ministry of the Interior Order, the nuclearfacility is to besurroundedby an emergencyplanningzoneextending to about 20 kilometresfrom the facility; the zoneshallbecoveredbydetailedrescueplans for publicprotectiondrawnupby the authorities. The authoritiesalsobearresponsibility for the implementation of the plans. In implementation, specialattentionshallbepaid to the characteristics of the site'ssurroundings, such as archipelagosthataredifficult to cross and recreationalsettlements, for example. The emergencyplanningzonemaynotcontainsuchpopulationsorpopulationcentres as wouldrenderimpossible the efficientimplementation of rescuemeasuresapplicable to them.
Emergencyplanning for authorities • The emergency planning zone extends about 20 km from the power plant, and the authorities must draw up a rescue plan for this zone as per section 9(2) of the Rescue Act (468/2003). • The rescue plan concerns how to warn the population in the zone and what rescue measures to undertake. • In case of a serious nuclear power plant accident, potential protective measures include • taking cover indoors, • ingesting iodine tablets and, • as an extreme measure, evacuating the danger area. • The construction of a nuclear power plant thus imposes obligations on the authorities too.
Emergencyplanning for authorities • A protective zone will be defined for the alternative power plant sites in connection with the land use planning. The protective zone and its land use restrictions will be shown in whole in the relevant regional land use plan. • The emergency planning zone will be defined in more detail (according to municipal boundaries or local communities) in the regional rescue plan, drawn up jointly by the licensee and local rescue services while the Nuclear Power Plant is under construction. • Establishment of the local (e.g. municipal) Emergency Centre and emergency plan for the local Rescue Service close to NPP including alarming and decision making arrangements for rescue operations. Attention should be given to define public communication methods and tools.
Olkiluoto NPP Loviisa NPP Loviisa NPP Emergency planning zones - approx 20 km radius- follow municipality borders • Olkiluoto NPP • Eurajoki • Rauma • Luvia Olkiluoto NPP • Loviisa NPP • Loviisa • Pernaja • Ruotsinpyhtää • Pyhtää
Population in the surroundings • Olkiluoto NPP (2 BWR 840 MW, under construction PWR 1600 MW) 0..5 km 70 5..20 km 42000 20..100 km 500000 • Loviisa NPP (2 PWR 500 MW) 0..5 km 50 5..20 km 13000 20..100 km 1.6 million In addition, protective zones 0..5 km and EPZ’s 0..20 km have hundreds of seashore and island summer houses Very limited farming in the protective zone