hazardous waste operations and emergency response awareness n.
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  2. Objectives • Define your role at the Awareness level? • “Clues” to be gathered upon discovering an incident. • Be able to read placards and labels. • Able to read and interpret the DOT book. • Able to implement site security and control. • Understand the basics of an Emergency Response Plan

  3. Role of First Responder - Awareness 29 CFR 1910.120(q) • Likely to witness or discover release. • Trained to initiate emergency response. • Take no further action .

  4. FIRST RESPONDER AWARENESS LEVEL • Understand what hazardous materials are and their risks in an incident. • Understand the potential outcome of an emergency created when hazardous materials are present. • Ability to recognize the presence of hazardous materials in an emergency.

  5. Ability to identify hazardous materials if possible • Role of the First Responder in the Emergency Response Plan including site security & control and DOT’s Emergency Response Guidebook. • Ability to realize the need for additional resources and to make appropriate notification to communication center.

  6. HISTORY • Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) • allocated funds to develop health and safety training for workers involved in transportation, storage, or disposal of hazardous waste.

  7. Hazard Recognition Definitions Hazardous substance: “OSHA” Hazardous waste: “EPA” Hazardous material: “DOT”

  8. Hazardous Substance - OSHA • A substance which may result in adverse affects on the health and safety of employees • A substance included as a hazardous material by DOT and as a hazardous waste by EPA

  9. Hazardous Waste - EPA Poses unreasonable risk to health, safety or property when transported in commerce for the purposes of treatment, storage, or disposal as waste

  10. Hazardous Material - DOT Any substance or material in any form or quantity which poses an unreasonable risk to safety and health and property when transported in commerce

  11. Chemical Hazards • Flammable • Corrosive • Reactive • Toxic • Sudden Release of Pressure (explosion) • detonation and deflagration

  12. Physical Hazards to Employees • Radiation • Electricity • Stress • Heat/Cold • Slips, trips, falls • Steam & Chemical clouds

  13. Biological Hazards • Infectious Hospital Waste • Research Materials • Raw sewage (hepatitis A, E-coli) • Bites from vectors (ticks, rats, wild dogs)

  14. Mode Inhalation Ingestion Injection Absorption Route Respiratory System Gastrointestinal Sys. Skin Skin Modes and Routes of Entry

  15. Health Effects • Acute • body response at time of exposure, typically a high concentration, or a few days after exposure. • Chronic • body response takes a long time after repeated or prolonged exposures.


  17. Inhalation Hazard? Handy rules of thumb • vapor pressure • <10 mmHg slow • 10-50 mmHg medium • >50 mmHg fast • evaporation rate • <0.8 slow • 0.8 - 3 medium • > 3 fast

  18. Target Organs • Nephrotoxin - kidneys • Hepatotoxin - liver • Neurotoxin - CNS • Hemotoxin - blood • Mutagenic - genetic material • Teratogenic - fetal deformities • Carcinogenic - cancer causing

  19. Factors of Toxicity • Time & Frequency (TWA, STEL) • Route by which exposure occurs • Physical & chemical form of the substance • Dose delivered

  20. Fire & Explosion Characteristics • Components of Combustion Fuel Oxidizer Ignition Sources

  21. Fire & Explosive CharacteristicsSources of Ignition Cigarettes Welding Grinding / Cutting Unprotected electrical equipment Open flames Hot surfaces Static electricity Oxidizing chemicals

  22. Class A Class B Class C Class D Classes Of Fires

  23. Class A/Ordinary Combustible -Extinguish with water • Class B/Flammable Liquids. Use a Dry Chemical Extinguisher • Class C/Electrical Equipment. Use a CO2 Extinguisher • Class D/Combustible Metals. Use a Dry Powder Extinguisher

  24. Flash Point Ignition Auto Ignition Lower Flammability Limit Upper Flammability Limit Combustible Flammability Range Oxidizers Terminology: Flammable

  25. Flammable vs. Combustible • Flammable • A liquid with a flash point below 100oF (Source: 29 CFR 1910.106) • A liquid with a flash point below 141oF (Source: DOT)

  26. Combustible • A liquid with a flash point at or above 100oF but below 200oF (Source: 29 CFR 1910.106) • A liquid with a flash point at or above 141oF but below 200oF (Source: DOT)

  27. Hazard Identification • Labels and Placards • Other Documentation (MSDS) • Container Shape

  28. Labels and Placards • DOT System • NFPA System • HMIS System COR 1831

  29. DOT System • Shipping papers • Markings • Labeling • Placarding

  30. Shipping Papers • Proper shipping name • Hazard class (9 classes) • Identification number • Packing group • Container type • Quantity • Shipper data • Emergency phone number

  31. Markings • Proper shipping name • Identification number • Address of the shipper

  32. Labels & Placards • Graphic representation of the hazard • Labels on packaging/containers • Placards on the outside - ends & sides of trucks, rail cars, freight containers

  33. NFPA SYSTEM • Diamond-shaped • Color-coded in 4 small diamonds • Blue Health risk • Red Flammability • Yellow Reactivity • White Special information • Number-coded in the red, blue, and yellow diamonds

  34. Chemical Name Health Hazard Fire Hazard Flash Points 4-Below 73 F 3-Below 100 F 2-Below 200 F 1-Above 200 F 0-Will not burn 4-Deadly 3-Extremely Hazardous 2-Hazardous 1-Slightly Hazardous 0-Normal material Specific Hazard Reactivity 4-May detonate 3-Shock and heat may detonate 2-Violent chemical change 1-Unstable if heated 0-Stable Oxidizer OX Use NO WATER W

  35. HMIS Hazard Materials Identification System • Rectangular • Color-coded • Blue Health risk • Red Flammability • Yellow Reactivity • White Special information/PPE

  36. Hazard Materials Information Sheet Health Flammability Reactivity PPE

  37. NFPA vs. HMIS • NFPA is geared for fire emergencies • HMIS is geared for everyday use • NFPA and HMIS numbers are often in conflict (especially health and reactivity) • HMIS includes necessary PPE • NFPA includes special hazards

  38. Other Documentation • MSDS • Shipping Containers • Shipping Papers (Bill of Lading)

  39. How hazardous is it?? • Percent by weight • How volatile it is (vapor pressure) • Lowest exposure limit • Physical form • Route of entry • Chronic vs. acute • Where is it? (out in open, confined area)

  40. Division of Safety & Hygiene Hazard Communication 96-97 Material Safety Data Sheet Identify (As Used on Label and List) Note: Blank spaces are not permitted. If any item is not applicable, or no information is available, the space must be marked to indicate that. Manufacturer’s Name Emergency Telephone Number Address (Number, Street, City, and ZIP Code) Telephone Number for Information Date Prepared Signature of Preparer (optional)

  41. Division of Safety & Hygiene Hazard Communication 96-97 Hazardous Ingredients/Identity Information OSHA PEL Other Limits Recommended Hazardous Components (Specific Chemical Identity; Common Name(s) ACGIH TLV %Optional

  42. Division of Safety & Hygiene Hazard Communication 96-97 Physical/Chemical Characteristics Boiling Point Specific Gravity (H2O = 1) Vapor Pressure (mm Hg.) Melting Point Vapor Density (AIR 1) Evaporation Rate (Butyl Acetate 1) Solubility in Water Appearance and Odor

  43. Division of Safety & Hygiene Hazard Communication 96-97 Fire and Explosion Hazard Data Flash Point (Method Used) Flammable Limits LEL UEL Extinguishing Media Special Fire Fighting Procedures Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards

  44. Division of Safety & Hygiene Hazard Communication 96-97 Reactivity Data Stability Unstable Conditions to Avoid Stable Incompatibility (Materials to Avoid) Hazardous Decomposition or Byproducts Hazardous May Occur Conditions to Avoid Polymerization Will Not Occur

  45. Division of Safety & Hygiene Hazard Communication 96-97 Health Hazard Data Route(s) of Entry: Inhalation? Skin? Ingestion? Health Hazards (Acute and Chronic) Carcinogenicity: NTP? IARC Monographs? OSHA Regulated? Signs and Symptoms of Exposure Medical Conditions Generally Aggravated by Exposure Emergency and First Aid Procedures

  46. Division of Safety & Hygiene Hazard Communication 96-97 Precautions for Safe Handling and Use Steps to Be Taken in Case Material is Released or Spilled Waste Disposal Method Precautions to Be Taken in Handling and Storing Other Precautions