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ECOLOGY. Interactions of Living Things. I. Ecology. Ecology : The study of the interactions between organisms and their environment. Environment : Anything that affects the organism. Biotic : living factors in the environment. Plants Bacteria Animals Fungi Protists.

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ecology

ECOLOGY

Interactions of Living Things

i ecology
I. Ecology
  • Ecology: The study of the interactions between organisms and their environment.
  • Environment: Anything that affects the organism.
ii biotic vs abiotic
Biotic: living factors in the environment.

Plants

Bacteria

Animals

Fungi

Protists

Abiotic: Non-living factors affecting the environment.

Water

Soil

Light

Temperature

natural disasters

pH

II. Biotic vs. Abiotic
iii 4 levels of environment
III. 4 Levels of Environment
  • Organism/Species
  • Population
  • Community
  • Ecosystem
iv energy uptake
IV. Energy Uptake
  • Producers – Make own food
  • Consumers – Eat other things
    • Herbivore – Eat plants
    • Carnivore – Eat animals
    • Omnivore – Eat plants and animals
    • Scavenger – Live off remains of dead organisms
  • Decomposers – Recycle dead matter
v flow of energy
V. Flow of Energy
  • Food Chains – simple, show direct relationships
  • Food Webs – Complex, show all possible relationships
  • Energy Pyramid – Shows ecosystems loss of energy. Each level uses 90% of energy obtained leaving only 10% available to the next level
vi habitat vs niche
Habitat: The environment in which an organism lives.

Niche: An organism’s way of life within an ecosystem. (includes its habitat, its food, its predators and the organisms with which it competes.

VI. Habitat vs. Niche
vii competition
VII. Competition
  • Organisms try to use the same limited resource.
  • Use by one organism decreases the amount available to other organisms.
viii predator prey
VIII. Predator/prey

One organism (the predator) eats the other organism (the prey).

ix symbiosis two organisms live in close association with one another
IX. Symbiosis – Two organisms live in close association with one another

1.) Mutualisms: Both organisms benefit

symbiosis 2 commensalism

One organism benefits and the

other organism is unaffected

Symbiosis2. Commensalism
  • Sharks and remoras
symbiosis 3 parasitism

One organism benefits while the

other organism is harmed.

Symbiosis3. Parasitism
  • Parasite: organism that benefits
  • Host: organism that is harmed and sometimes dies
  • Examples:

Ticks Tapeworms