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Introduction to Oceanography. Ru Morrison COOA University of New Hampshire. Oceanographic Disciplines. All to answer the question: How do phytoplankton grow?. Physical - stratification Chemical - nutrients Biological - phytoplankton. 1) Physical Oceanography. Seasonal Stratification.

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introduction to oceanography

Introduction to Oceanography

Ru Morrison

COOA

University of New Hampshire

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

oceanographic disciplines
Oceanographic Disciplines

All to answer the question:

How do phytoplankton grow?

  • Physical - stratification
  • Chemical - nutrients
  • Biological - phytoplankton

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

1 physical oceanography

1) Physical Oceanography

Seasonal Stratification

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

introducing the clines

Amy Holt Cline

COOA

Kevin Kline

Fish Called Wanda

Seasonal Thermocline

All over the place

Introducing the Clines

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

a little regional geography
A little regional Geography

You are here

Jordan Basin

+

+

George’s Basin

Wilkinson Basin

George’s Bank

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

seasonal thermocline

Winter

Spring

Summer

Fall

Seasonal Thermocline

COOA REACH station D

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

how to mix things up a little or a lot

Wind mix from the Surface down

Summer

Tides mix from the bottom up

How to Mix things up a little (or a lot)

If too shallow no seasonal stratification

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

something strange afoot in wilkinson basin
Something Strange afoot in Wilkinson Basin

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

deep slope water
Deep Slope Water

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

stratification summary
Stratification Summary
  • Due to density changes
    • During Winter months waters well mixed
    • Increased sun in Spring warms surface waters → less dense and floats
    • Decreased sun and increased storms begin to mix things up Fall
    • Back to mixed in Winter
  • Not that simple as you need to consider salinity as well

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

2 chemical oceanography

2) Chemical Oceanography

Nutrients

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

slide12

Nutrients

From Thurman H.V. and Burton, E.A., 2001. Introductory Oceanography

  • Important and commonly measured elements needed for the growth of plants

Too Complicated!

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

slide13

Nutrients

Plants

Animals

Nutrients

Photosynthesis

Thermo-cline

Regeneration

Detritus

  • Important and commonly measured elements needed for the growth of plants

Land Runoff

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

biological oceanography

Biological Oceanography

Run Video

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

what s alive drifters of the ocean plankton
What’s Alive?Drifters of the ocean - Plankton
  • Zooplankton
    • Eat phytoplankton
    • Get eaten by bigger things
    • Important in nutrient cycling

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

what s alive swimmers nekton
What’s Alive?Swimmers - Nekton
  • Squid
  • Mammals
  • Reptiles
  • Fish

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

food webs
Food Webs

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

you can t see a whale from space but you can see

Phytoplankton

You can’t see a whale from space but you can see …

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

light from the sun
Light – from the sun

UV

Visible

Infrared

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

fluorescence
Absorbed light of all colors reemitted as red light (683 nm, actually by chlorophyll-a)

Can use it to measure phytoplankton biomass

Fluorescence

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

fluorometer
Fluorometer
  • Fluorescence used to estimate chlorophyll – a
  • Chl-a used to estimate phytoplankton biomass

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

photosynthesis biosynthesis
Photosynthesis & Biosynthesis

6CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2

  • Photosynthesis makes carbohydrates
  • What’s needed?
    • Light
    • Nutrients for Biosynthesis
      • i.e. To make other stuff such as DNA

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

seasonal stratification what does it do to phytoplankton

Winter

Spring

Summer

Fall

Seasonal Stratification -What does it do to phytoplankton?

COOA REACH station D

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom

phytoplankton summary
Phytoplankton Summary
  • Fluorescence estimate of Biomass
  • Requires
    • Nutrients
    • Light
  • Spring
    • Onset of Stratification keeps Phytoplankton in surface nutrient rich waters → Spring bloom
  • Summer
    • Nutrients in the surface mixed layer depleted during → decreased quantities
  • Fall
    • Mixing introduces nutrients from bottom water

→ Fall bloom usually smaller

Incorporating Ocean Observation Data into the Classroom