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Chapter Twenty-Four. The Persuasive Speech. Chapter Twenty-Four. Table of Contents What Is a Persuasive Speech? The Process of Persuasion Classical Persuasive Appeals Contemporary Persuasive Appeals. What Is a Persuasive Speech?.

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chapter twenty four
Chapter Twenty-Four

The Persuasive Speech

chapter twenty four2
Chapter Twenty-Four

Table of Contents

  • What Is a Persuasive Speech?
  • The Process of Persuasion
  • Classical Persuasive Appeals
  • Contemporary Persuasive Appeals
what is a persuasive speech
What Is a Persuasive Speech?
  • Persuasion: the process of influencing attitudes, beliefs, values, and behavior.
  • Persuasive speaking: speech intended to influence the beliefs, attitudes, values, and acts of others.
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What Is a Persuasive Speech?

  • Persuasive speeches:
    • Attempt to influence audience choices
    • Limit alternatives
    • Seek a response
    • Respect audience choices
what is a persuasive speech persuasive speeches attempt to influence audience choices
What Is a Persuasive Speech?Persuasive Speeches Attempt to Influence Audience Choices
  • The goal is not to increase understanding and awareness; it is to influence audience choices.
  • This influence can vary from slight shifts in opinion to wholesale changes in behavior.
what is a persuasive speech persuasive speeches limit alternatives
What is a Persuasive Speech?Persuasive Speeches Limit Alternatives
  • A persuasive speech will have at least two viewpoints.
  • Persuasion seeks to weigh the alternatives to demonstrate that one alternative is ultimately preferable.
what is a persuasive speech persuasive speeches seek a response
What is a Persuasive Speech?Persuasive Speeches Seek a Response
  • “Perspective taking”: leading the audience to a perspective that is the speaker’s.
the process of persuasion
The Process of Persuasion
  • Guiding the audience to adopt a particular attitude, belief, or behavior that you favor.
the process of persuasion9
The Process of Persuasion
  • To influence your listeners you must understand how their attitudes, beliefs, and values might affect the way they view your position.
the process of persuasion10
The Process of Persuasion
  • Relate your message to the audience.
  • Show how the change will benefit them.
  • Have a strong attitude.
  • Seek minor changes.
  • Present yourself as truthful.
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The Process of Persuasion

  • Convince your audience that a change will make them feel satisfied and competent.
  • Be moderate in your position.
  • Listeners must be assured they will be rewarded if they listen to you.
classical persuasive appeals
Classical Persuasive Appeals
  • Aristotle believed that persuasion could be brought about by through the use of three means of persuasion, or forms of rhetorical proof.
classical persuasive appeals13
Classical Persuasive Appeals
  • Forms of rhetorical proof: the nature of the message, the audience’s feelings, and the personality of the speaker.
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Classical Persuasive Appeals

  • Logos: Appeals to Audience Reason
  • Pathos: Appeals to Audience Emotion
  • Ethos: Appeals to Speaker Character
classical persuasive appeals logos appeals to audience reason
Classical Persuasive Appeals:Logos: Appeals to Audience Reason
  • Many persuasive speeches focus on serious issues requiring considerable thought.
  • Logos: refers to persuasive appeals directed at the audience’s reasoning on a topic.
classical persuasive appeals logos appeals to audience reason16
Classical Persuasive Appeals:Logos: Appeals to Audience Reason
  • Syllogism: a three-part argument consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion.
  • Enthymeme: a syllogism presented as a probability instead of an absolute; states either a major or minor premise but not both.
classical persuasive appeals pathos appeals to audience emotion
Classical Persuasive Appeals: Pathos: Appeals to Audience Emotion
  • Pathos involves an appeal to audience emotion.
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Classical Persuasive Appeals: Pathos: Appeals to Audience Emotion

  • You can identify and appeal to the following emotions:
    • Anger and meekness
    • Love and hatred
    • Fear and boldness
    • Shame and shamelessness
classical persuasive appeals ethos appeals to speaker character
Classical Persuasive Appeals:Ethos: Appeals to Speaker Character
  • Ethos: the nature of the speaker’s moral character and personality.
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Classical Persuasive Appeals:Ethos: Appeals to Speaker Character

  • Elements of an appeal based on ethos:
    • Good sense: the speaker’s knowledge of and experience with the topic.
    • Moral character:reflected in the manner in which a speaker presents an argument.
    • Goodwill:an interest and concern for the welfare of the audience.
contemporary persuasive appeals
Contemporary Persuasive Appeals
  • Current theories expand upon Aristotle by considering audience needs, rationales for choice, and ways of processing information.
contemporary persuasive appeals motivating listeners by appealing to their needs
Contemporary Persuasive Appeals:Motivating Listeners by Appealing to Their Needs
  • Appealing to audience needs is one of the most commonly used strategies for motivating people.
  • Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: a set of five basic needs ranging from the essential to the less critical
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Contemporary Persuasive Appeals:Motivating Listeners by Appealing to the Rationales for Their Behavior
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy:
    • Physiological
    • Safety
    • Social needs
    • Self-esteem
    • Self-actualization
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Contemporary Persuasive Appeals:Motivating Listeners by Appealing to the Rationales for Their Behavior
  • Expectancy-Outcome Values Theory: maintains that people consciously evaluate the potential costs and benefits (or value) associated with taking a particular action.
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Contemporary Persuasive Appeals:Motivating Listeners by Making the Message Relevant to Their Concerns
  • Elaboration Likelihood Model: a theory that suggests people process persuasive messages by one of two mental routes (central processing or peripheral processing), depending on their degree of involvement in the message.
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Contemporary Persuasive Appeals:Motivating Listeners by Making the Message Relevant to Their Concerns

Central Processing: listeners who are influenced primarily by the strength and quality of a speaker’s argument.

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Contemporary Persuasive Appeals:Motivating Listeners by Making the Message Relevant to Their Concerns

Peripheral Processing: listeners who are more likely to be influenced by non-content issues, because they find the message too complex or irrelevant.