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Chapter Twenty-Four. Nonhuman Primates. ALAT Presentations Study Tips. If viewing this in PowerPoint, use the icon to run the show (bottom left of screen). Mac users go to “Slide Show > View Show” in menu bar

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Chapter Twenty-Four

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chapter twenty four

Chapter Twenty-Four

Nonhuman Primates

alat presentations study tips
ALAT Presentations Study Tips
  • If viewing this in PowerPoint, use the icon to run the show (bottom left of screen).
    • Mac users go to “Slide Show > View Show” in menu bar
  • Click on the Audio icon: when it appears on the left of the slide to hear the narration.
  • From “File > Print” in the menu bar, choose “notes pages”, “slides 3 per page” or “outline view” for taking notes as you listen and watch the presentation.
    • Start your own notebook with a 3 ring binder, for later study!
nonhuman primates
Nonhuman Primates
  • 1% of total no. vertebrates used in research
  • > 250 nonhuman primate species
  • Anthropoids = humans, apes & monkeys
  • Prosimians = all other primates
  • African & Asian origin =

Old World monkeys

  • rhesus, cynomolgus & baboon
  • eyes set close together
  • nostrils open downward
  • cheek pouches
  • some have callous pads on
  • their buttocks
nonhuman primates ii
Nonhuman Primates II
  • South & Central America = New World monkeys
    • squirrel monkeys, owl monkeys & marmosets
    • long prehensile tail to help them climb
    • nostrils open to the front or sides
  • Sometimes purchased as conditioned animals captured in the wild, held in captivity.
  • Increasing % used in research annually in US are bred in this country.
handling restraint
Handling & Restraint
  • Susceptible to many human diseases.
  • Carriers of many diseases which infect humans.
    • for example, Herpes B virus which may be fatal in humans
  • Always wear lab coat or gown, mask, eye or face shield, gloves, cap & protective footwear.
  • Regard even playful, friendly

NHP w/ caution.

  • Handle using chemical restraint,

heavy leather gloves or pole

& collar device .

  • Adult male of large species less

dangerous by trimming or removing canine teeth.

handling restraint ii
Handling & Restraint II
  • Physical restraint for animals weighing < 9 kg:
    • Wear heavy, double-layer gloves w/ long armlets.
    • Hold forearms behind back w/ 1 hand, extend legs firmly w/ other hand.
  • Chemical restraint:
    • immobilize in squeeze cage, injecting drug into arm or leg through cage door.
    • Ketamine hydrochloride is drug most commonly used.
physiological data
Physiological Data
  • Data for rhesus & cynomolgus monkeys, most common primates used in research
    • Body temperature: 98.6°-103.1°F
    • Heart rate: 120-180 / min.
    • Respiratory rate: 35-50 / min.
    • Weight: adult 6-11 kg; newborn 550 gm
    • Water consumption: 400-600 ml / day
    • Food consumption: 400-600 gm / day
    • Life span: 20-30 years
sexing breeding
Sexing & Breeding
  • Male has externally visible, pendulous penis w/ testes in scrotal sac; female has vulva.
  • Male larger & more aggressive than female.
  • The selection of a breeding program depends on the species and the purpose for which they are being mated.
  • Monogamous & harem mating for increased production.
  • Old World female has menstrual periods similar to human female.
  • New World female has estrous cycle similar to other animals.
sexing breeding ii
Sexing & Breeding II
  • Most birth 1 baby at a time, usually at night.
  • Most females good mothers, raise offspring with little aid.
  • Occasionally mothers abandon or mistreat young, necessitating separation & hand raising infant.
    • females known to adopt abandoned infants.
  •  Sexual maturity: 4-5 years
  •  Estrous cycle: 28 days
  •  Gestation: 150-175 days
  •  Litter size: 1 (marmosets often have twins)
  •  Weaning: 12-24 months
  • Social benefit by contact &

communication w/ same species.

  • Inquisitive, grab anything within reach.
    • Keep small items concealed.
  • Body language & behavior peculiar to species.
  • Can tell mental & physical health from body language.
  • Usually sit on buttocks or lie on resting perch.
  • Outdoors, enjoy sunning in a variety of positions.
  • Sleep sitting up w/ head bowed or lying on side.
  • Walk quadrupedally or bipedally.
  • Group or individually housed
  • Play w/ their feces & food.
  • Cleaning may take > time than w/ other species.
  • Food greasy & can cause slippery floor.
  • Cage must meet 2 important criteria:
    • Material must withstand attempts to gnaw & pull apart.
    • Door fastener must be secured w/ padlock.
  • Squeeze cage for blood collection, drug administration & other manipulations
  • Sanitize every 2 wks.
husbandry ii
Husbandry II
  • Separate incoming primates from animals already in facility.
  • House in small groups of less than 6 - 10 / room.
  • Assign a number & start medical record.
  • Observe for signs of illness, TB test & screen for enteric pathogens.
  • Quarantine period for 31 - 60 days
  • Very susceptible to tuberculosis
    • TB tests more than 2x / year.
      • intradermally into eyelid
      • Redness or swelling at injection

site may indicate TB.

husbandry iii
Husbandry III
  • Environmental enrichment necessary
    • opportunity to behave as though they were wild
  • House groups of monkeys together.
    • not always possible due to space limitations, incompatible animals (adult males) &

research project requirements

  • Provide animals w/ toys, food

treats, contact w/ other monkeys

& interaction w/ personnel.

  • Most use commercial monkey food.
  • Diet of New World monkeys

should contain adequate vitamin C & vitamin D3.

  • Give daily food allowance in 2 or 3 equal portions throughout day.
    • Supplement w/ fruits and vegetables
  • Supplement New World monkey diets w/ natural foods such as fruit & nuts.
  • Teach juveniles & adults to use automatic watering valve by adjusting valve to leak slightly.
  • Start hand-reared newborns on bottle w/ sipper tube, switch to automatic devices when older.
additional reading
Additional Reading

Bennett, B.T., C.R. Abee, R. Henrickson. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Biology and Management. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 1995.

Fortman, Jeffrey D., B. Taylor Bennett and Terry A. Hewett. The Laboratory Non-Human Primate. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 1998.