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A5 Countries Readiness for Methyl Bromide Phase-out by 1st January 2015: Addressing the Challenges of SustainabilityMethyl Bromide Phase- out in the Postharvest sectorChallenges relating to susbtability and the way forward UNEB OzonAction:Webinar 7 May2013Mohamed El Hassan ShazaliCommodity Storage and Pest Management E. mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
- Agriculture is the main economic activity in Sudan . - In agriculture MB is mainly used in durable commodity disinfestations , for structural fumigation and QPS fumigations;-Durable commodities include food grains “cereals, oil seeds and legumes” staple food grains in Sudan are sorghum, millet and wheat; -Typical storage facilities vary in stanadards.
Metal silos : corrugated or plain steel sheets ; each 2000-6000 tons. Lack air-tightness
-The status of phosphine fumigation in Sudan: Current situation:- Phosphine is the only fumigant identified, at the present ,as MB alternativeinpostharvest fumigation;.-It is economic, viable and available option as an alternative to MB; - It does not leave residues on the stored commodities;- Phosphine is now in routine commercial use in the post harvest;
- The use of phosphine is vital to the grain industry in meeting its market requirements for insect-free grain. - Disinfestations of durable commodities will continue to depend heavily on fumigation with phosphine; - It seems unlikely that another fumigant which is both effective and easy to apply will become available to replace MB in the near future; - Alternative fumigants (other than Phosphine) are more expensive, and some are not as widely accepted by markets.
- The situation is now of more phosphine as methyl bromide is being phased-out; - At the same time there are more substandard fumigations and no counter selection pressure as provided by MB;- Resistance has developed in insects in Sudan; - Furthermore,Sudan is at risk of importing resistant insets;
CLF is a means of obtaining rapid and uniform distribution in the grain bulk in silos….prevents development of resistance
Challenges /Constraints:- 1- Project achievements need to be consolidated and extended;2- Improper phosphine fumigation procedures; malpractices i.e dosages, sealing , exposures etc… - will lead to development of resistance in insects ;3- Complete control cannot be achieved where there is resistant insects ;
4-There is a need to address challenges associated with technology transfer , safety of personnel and monitoring insect resistance ; 5- Investment in equipments and instruments ,for the proper use of phosphine, is rather expensive/prohibitive ;6- Some trading partners insist on MB as treatment measure before shipment ;7- Lack of knowledge on fumigation requirement by Pest control officers and stakeholders;
8- Controlling all possible route for illegal importation of MB;9- Choice of Fumigants is limited,10- If phosphine fumigation is to be ineffective, a grave situation will be created.
The Way forward : Measures to ensure sustain ability1- There is a need to identify ,evaluate and demonstrate MB alternative, “C/A ,M/a, CO2 , low O2 etc…2- There is a need to tap on IPM. : Use of different control methods as possible. 3- There is an urgent need to rectify phosphine fumigation, as used in Sudan, to avoid catastrophic consequences i.e. resistance ,safety etc …4- Development of fumigation techniques that can prevent selection for resistance and at the same time overcome resistance “CLF” ;
5- Training is needed to raise awareness, build capacities and capabilities to achieve high standards of competence.;6- Develop and implement national management plans for phosphine resistance. We need to Manage the development of resistance;7- Fumigations must be carried out as a part of a technological package of integrated pest management (IPM), no in isolation as a cosmetic treatment; Hence, a holistic approach is needed;
8- To investigate efficient prophylactic technologies such as grain protectants which are contact insecticides mainly pyrethroids e.g. permethrin, deltamethrin etc..., 9- Technical assistance is needed to enhance adoption of “TEC” alternative technologies in different situations :To enhance sustainability of MB Alternative