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Modern Classification sorts organisms into groups shows relationships among them. Phylogeny Systematics Cladistics. Classification and Diversity. Classification - tries to organize all living things into groups - show how they evolved from earlier life forms

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modern classification sorts organisms into groups shows relationships among them

Modern Classificationsorts organisms into groupsshows relationships among them

Phylogeny

Systematics

Cladistics

classification and diversity
Classification and Diversity

Classification

- tries to organize all living things into groups

- show how they evolved from earlier life forms

- show relationships to other present forms

- changes with new information

Early Systems

Aristotle - by environment: land, water, air

John Ray (1600s) - in related groups

- short description for each species

linnaeus
Linnaeus

Carolus Linnaeus – Swedish botanist, 1700s

used physical appearance and structure

  • 7 taxa: from broad to specific
  • Kingdom – Phylum – Class – Order
  • - Family – Genus – Species

Binomial Nomenclature

- two names for each

Genus: group to which it belongs

species: 1-2 word description

Ex. Homo sapiens

evidence for classification
Evidence for Classification

Many forms:

- physical appearance and structure (morphology)

- other present organisms

- fossils

- molecules, especially DNA, RNA, proteins

- embryology patterns

Various organizing diagrams

evidence for evolutionary relationships
Evidence for Evolutionary Relationships
  • Physical appearance and structure
  • Resemblance to other organisms
phylogeny and systematics
Phylogeny and Systematics

Taxonomy – sort and name organisms

Phylogeny - Evolutionary history of a group of

organisms - shows common ancestry

Systematics - combines taxonomy with evolution

- organized way to study diversity and relationships

taxonomy sorting and naming
Taxonomy – sorting and naming

Species – individual type of organism

Genus – group of related species

Scientific Name = Genus & species

Family – related genera

Order – related families

Class – related orders

Phylum – related classes

Kingdom – related phyla

Domain – Three Domain System

phylogeny compares structure
Phylogeny -compares structure

Homologous – similar structure, with adaptations

- shows common ancestry

slide12

Analogous structures

  • Evolved in similar environments
  • NOT shared ancestry
cladistics
Cladistics

Tries to show evolutionary relationships based on physical traits shared by different groups of organisms

cladograms
Cladograms

More shared traits

= more closely related

Derived character

– more recent branch from evolutionary line

Primitive character

- older, shared by more groups

molecular systematics
Molecular Systematics
  • Compares molecules to find relationships
slide16

Student

Mushroom

Tulip

Common ancestor

Figure 15.9B

  • Ribosomal RNA
    • Have shown that fungi are more closely related to humans than to green plants
slide17
DNA – Compare genes and DNA sequences
  • - many similar sequences = closely related
slide18

Human

Chimpanzee

Gorilla

Orangutan

Common ancestor

Figure 15.9C

  • More shared genes = closer relationship
slide19
Molecular Clocks
    • Some regions of DNA or proteins
      • Change at a fairly consistent rate
      • Can date evolutionary events
five kingdoms system
Five- Kingdoms System

(Classification is a work in progress!)

  • Prokaryotes are in one Kingdom – Monera
  • Eukaryotes are grouped in separate kingdoms
    • Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists
six kingdom system
Six-Kingdom System
  • Bacteria are divided into two kingdoms, based on their chemical nature
three domain system
Three Domain System
  • One domain for all eukaryotes
  • One domain for each of the two kinds of bacteria