Contents Module 1 Written communication------ an overview Module 2 Establishment of Business Relations Module 3 Inquiries and replies Module 4Making Quotations & Offers Module 5Counteroffers & Declining Orders Module 6 Acceptance & Orders
Contents Module 7 Terms of Payment Module 8 Letter of Credit Module 9 Packing & Shipment Module 10 Insurance Module 11 Complaints & Claim
Learning Objectives • Be able to grasp the basic principles of business letter writing • Be able to grasp the layout of business letters • Be able to grasp the envelope addressing • Be able to grasp e-mail writing
Preface • 1.Definition English business correspondence refers to the letters , cables, telexes, faxes and e-mails dealing in international business, as well as in domestic trade, of course. • 2. Aim The purpose of this course is to help you learn how to write good business letters by using up-to-date expressions in the simplest possible language.
3. Features • It has its unique language style and jargons • It is full of business terminations and abbreviations • There is a close relations between EBC and international trade • Examples: • We are in the market for silk blouses and should be pleased if you could kindly quote us your keenest prices CFRLondon for the goods below • Offer quotation order counteroffer letter of credit CIF FOB • YL11/11RVD • S/C123 L/CUNRCV PLSRUSH
Task 1 • Warming-up Discussion • Suppose you work for China National Garments Imp. & Exp. Corporation. Counsellor's Office of the British Embassy in Beijing, from which you note that they are in the market for silk blouses. Now, you are requested to write a letter to the buyer. Can you list the layout of your business letter?
The Layout of business letters A. The standard parts B. The optional parts
A. The standard parts Layout of Business Letters • the letterhead • the inside address • the date • the salutation • the body of the letter • the complimentary close • the signature
Layout of Business Letters B. The optional parts • the references • the special markings • the subject line • the enclosure • the carbon copy notation
Form of a business letter 1.The fully blocked style This layout reduces typing time as all typing lines begin at the left margin there are no indentations for new paragraphs or the closing section.
Form of a business letter 2. Indented style Indented style refers to each paragraph (body of the letter) taking in the first line of each paragraph in the body of the letter, five spaces for type, and other parts are the same as a fully-blocked style.
Nippon International Trading Co.Ltd. 3 Mihonbashi, Honcho 3 Chome Chuo-ku Tokyo 104 Japan The Wilson Company 1377 Main Stree Dallas, Texas 7522 U.S.A. Attn.:Shipping Dept. Shipping Advice Dear Sirs, We are pleased to advise you that your Order for 5,000 pcs of men’s shirts have been forwarded onto S/S Peace this morning. Enclosed please find a full set of copy shipping documents as required in your L/C No.332. We are very glad to have been able to executed your order as stipulated and assure you of our close cooperation with you in all your future dealings. Yours faithfully, Nippon International Trading Co.Ltd Sales Manager: YOKOYAMA Enc. As Stated. 缩行式示例
3. Modified Blocked-Style with Indented Paragraphs • Form of a business letter • Placement of the letterhead, the date, the complimentary close and the signature on the right side of the paper. Paragraphs have indentation with five spaces from the left margin in the letter. And this form is current used.
参考编号和日期靠右 改良齐头式示例 签名偏右
Envelopes addressing • accuracy • clearness • appearance The principles of addressing envelopes:
Envelopes addressing • Name and address of the receiver should be typed above half way down the envelope, leaving enough space for the postmark or stamps. • the return address should be printed in the upper left corner of the envelope. • Post notations such as ‘Registered’, ‘Certified’ or ‘Confidential’ should be placed in the bottom left-hand corner.
Envelopes addressing • When a letter is mailed to a third person who is bound to pass it onto the addressee, write the third person's name down below the addressee’s, write the words ‘care of’ in front of it.
齐头式举例 写信人名称地址 收信人名称地址：左端对齐
缩格式举例 写信人名称地址 收信人名称地址：逐行右缩
捎交 Mr. Charles Wood Kindness of Mr. J. W. Smith 由Mr. J. W. Smith 捎交给 Mr. Charles Wood
最终收信人 转交 转交人 转交人地址
Layout of E-mails 电子邮件格式
收件人 被抄送人 外发的邮件 事由 被暗抄人 主体部分 添加附件处
被抄送人 发件人 接收的邮件 事由 收件人 日期 附件 主体部分
Language and tone Ø Choose the method of communication carefully. Ø Create the document thoughtfully. Ø Present the document so that it looks good and gives an impression of efficiency and reliability. Ø Use a format that is neat, easy to read and structures logically. Ø Use appropriate tone, considering the circumstances, the situation and the recipient. Ø Ensure your message is accurate in terms of grammar, spelling and punctuation.
1. Remember your ABC Accurate Check facts carefully Include all relevant details Proofread thoroughly Brief keep sentences short Use simple expressions Use non-technical language Clear Use plain, simple English Write in an easy, natural style Avoid formality or familiarity
2. Be courteous and considerate • Reply promptly to all communications-answer on the same day if possible. • If you cannot answer immediately, write a brief note and explain why. This will create goodwill. • Understand and respect the recipient’s point of view. • Resist the temptation to reply as if your correspondent is wrong. • If you feel some comments are unfair, be tactful and try not to cause offence. • Resist the temptation to reply to an offensive letter in a similar tone. Instead, answer courteously and do not lower your dignity.
3. Use appropriate tone • If your letter is to achieve its purpose the tone must be appropriate. The tone of your letter reflects the spirit in which you put your letter across. • You alter your tone of voice to convey messages in different ways. Much of what you say is also interpreted through non-verbal clues----- eye contact, gestures, inflections of the voice, etc. This type of ‘reading between the lines’ is not possible with the written word. Therefore it is vital to choose your words carefully. You can be firm or friendly, persuasive or conciliatory—it depends on the impression you wish to convey. It is important to try to get the tone right because using the wrong tone could cause real offence to your reader.
4. Write naturally and sincerely Try to show a genuine interest in your reader and his/her problems. Your message should sound sincere while written in your own style. Write naturally, as if you are having a conversation.
5. Remember the KISS principles KISS stands for: Keep It Short and Simple KISS means instead of long or complex words, use short ones.
6. Use modern terminology Old-fashioned phrases add nothing to your meaning. Such unnecessary, long-winded phrases are likely to give a poor impression of the writer and may even lead to confusion. A good business letter will use no more words than are necessary to convey a clear and accurate message.
7. Include essential details If the recipient of your letter must ask a question, or if something is unclear, then something has been omitted from your message. Do not leave anything to chance. Include all essential information.
8. Be consistent Consistency is not only important in the way your massage is presented, it is important within the message itself. The people attending will be George Bush, Bill Clinton and Denny from the Sales. The people attending the next committee meeting will be George Bush, Bill Clinton and Denny Smith.
9. Use active not passive voice ‘Voice’ is a grammatical term that refers to whether the subject of the sentence is acting or receiving the action. Using active voice can considerably improve your writing style. Active voice makes your writing more interesting, more lively and more -- well, active! Make comparisons: Active voice: Tom played the violin. Passive voice: The violin was played by Tom.
10. Compose CLEAR communications CLEAR objectives. Your message should be: Clear Leave no doubt in your reader’s mind. Help yourself by being specific, avoiding vague expressions, using familiar words and using simple English. Remember also to use straightforward language that your reader can understand, written in a friendly, natural, conversational style.
10. Compose CLEAR communications CLEAR objectives. Your message should be: Logical Structure your message logically, remembering to use the 4 point plan. Start with an introduction, develop your points logically in the central section, and come to a natural conclusion in which you state the action you need from the reader. Finish with an appropriate one-line.
CLEAR objectives. Your message should be: Empathetic Put yourself in your reader’s place and ask yourself how the reader will feel when he /she reads your letter. If anything is unclear, or if anything is worded badly, then change it before you sent it. Accurate Make sure all the relevant details are included------times, dates, names of commodity, facts and figures. Right Proofread carefully (not just spell check) to make sure everything is 100% right before you sent the message.
The Seven Cs • Consideration • Courtesy • Clarity • Conciseness • Concreteness • Correctness • Completeness
The motto in business letter-writing A letter is personal contact. The exchange of information is basic to business. Letters should be easy to read and easy to understand, they must be friendly and courteous. Business letters should develop goodwill.
Structuring communications 4 POINT PLAN Introduction (Background and Basics) 1 Details (Facts and Figures) 2 Response or Action (Conclusion) 3 Close (A simple one-liner) 4
Situational Training---1 Headings Date Inside address Special markings Salutation Subject line Body Complimentary close Signature Enc. CC to
Situational Training---2 Sender’s name & address stamp recipient’s name & address Postal ways