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Functional Analysis

Functional Analysis. Justin Daigle, MA, BCBA, LBA Program Director Therapy Center of Acadiana. Background. Skinner & “ Functions of Behavior ” Research discovers 4 functions Practitioners could only guess Brian Iwata & et al. creates “Functional Analysis”. Clarifications.

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Functional Analysis

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  1. Functional Analysis Justin Daigle, MA, BCBA, LBA Program Director Therapy Center of Acadiana

  2. Background Skinner & “Functions of Behavior” Research discovers 4 functions Practitioners could only guess Brian Iwata & et al. creates “Functional Analysis”

  3. Clarifications Function – Why a behavior is occurring (the “why”) Topography – The type of behavior (the “what”)

  4. Clarifications Different topographies can serve different functions

  5. The Real Functions Social Positive Social Negative Automatic Positive Automatic Negative

  6. Classes Response Class – Different topographies of behavior that serve the same function Example: I hit to get your attention. I kick to get your attention. Hitting and Kicking for attention belong to the same response class.

  7. Classes Stimulus Class – Two stimuli that share some common bond. Most frequently that they evoke the same behavior or function. Example: A stop sign and a red light are two different stimuli that evoke the same behavior.

  8. Classes If you intervene on a specific topography Other topographies will most likely stay unchanged Unless they are in the same response class But there is no guarantee Behavioral Contrast

  9. FBA vs. FA Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) is any scientific assessment that gives support to the function of a behavior. Examples: Functional Analysis ABC Data Direct Observation Indirect Observation

  10. FBA vs. FA Functional Analysis (FA) is just one type of FBA It’s the most accurate Has the most proven success rate (research based)

  11. Problems with FBA Does the consequence control the behavior?

  12. Problems with FBA Which Antecedent controls the behavior?

  13. The FAST Please see handout

  14. General Notes All of the conditions of a FA are overly strict and rigid. It’s important to control any extra variables so that the data you take is as accurate as possible.

  15. Conceptual Behavior increases when reinforced Behaviors have functions A given behavior (with a function) will be reinforced by that function (ie. Attention behavior will be reinforced by attention)

  16. Conceptual If we deliver an attention reinforcer for a problematic behavior and the behavior increases, then we know the behavior is attention maintained.

  17. Defining Behavior Function Analysis work best of you focus on one specific topography. However, in practice, it becomes a problem to run multiple FA’s for different topographies. Therefore, we often observe multiple behaviors during one FA.

  18. Defining Behavior You should have a clear definition of what counts as an instance of each target behavior.

  19. Conditions 1) Alone/Ignore 2) Attention 3) Escape 4) Play (Baseline and Pairing) 5) Access (Optional) Repeat all conditions at least 3 times Can be either 10mins or 15mins long

  20. Alone/Ignore Alone – Client is left alone in a bare room. Client is monitored via camera or through a one-way mirror. Ignore – Client is left in a room with an adult who does nothing and never attends to any behavior.

  21. Attention Attention – Client plays with a few toys. Professional ignores. If client emits a targeted behavior, professional gives attention in the form of mild chastising such as “Don’t do that”.

  22. Escape Escape – Client enters a bare room. Professional immediately begins to deliver SDs that have been observed in the client’s repertoire. Professional stops only when client engages in target behavior

  23. Play Play – Client plays with a few toys. Professional ignores. Using a FT schedule (every 30 seconds) the professional will give specific praise to the student.

  24. Access (Optional) Access – Client enters a bare room. Professional has a reinforcing item. Professional plays with item until the client engages in a target behavior. Then, the client is granted access to the item.

  25. ordering The order of the conditions are important. Each condition creates a MO for the next condition.

  26. Ethical Concerns Keep the client and the behavior separate!

  27. Ethical Concerns These conditions are created to increase problematic behavior, so expect it. If you were put in these conditions, we would see similar behaviors.

  28. Ethical Concerns Keep the safety of the client and yourself as a top priority.

  29. Downfalls Requires explicit informed consent Emotional process for parents, clients, and instructors

  30. Downfalls May temporally increase a problematic behavior Hard to explain why we want to increase problematic behavior Some behaviors are too severe

  31. Downfalls FA rely on contrived settings and may not elicit the behaviors seen in natural environments Time, effort, professional expertise, and ethical considerations

  32. Intervening Once you know the function, then you can develop an intervention plan that will be effective. Refer to handout (pg. 517 of white book) Remember that Antecedent Interventions are just as effective as Extinction or Punishment.

  33. Final Notes Notice how the handout lays out interventions for Attention, Access (tangible), and Escape

  34. Final Notes Until recently, the only research on Automatic Interventions has been around Response Interrupt and Re-Direction (RIRD)

  35. Final Notes In Spring of 2012, first research surfacing about other forms of intervention (see handout) – including research conducted at TCA

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