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Pharmacy Units. Measurements and Abbreviations There are others in the Student Handout book The most common ones (Must know) C=Celsius F =Fahrenheit G or gr =Gram Gr. = grain L= liter Ml= Milliliter Mg=Milligram Kg=Kilogram TBSP= tablespoon TSP= Teaspoon Gtt= drop.

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pharmacy units
Pharmacy Units
  • Measurements and Abbreviations
    • There are others in the Student Handout book
      • The most common ones (Must know)
        • C=Celsius
        • F =Fahrenheit
        • G or gr =Gram
        • Gr. = grain
        • L= liter
        • Ml= Milliliter
        • Mg=Milligram
        • Kg=Kilogram
        • TBSP= tablespoon
        • TSP= Teaspoon
        • Gtt= drop
measurement systems
Measurement Systems
  • Metric System- began in France in 1795.
    • Denotes basic units of measurement in 6 main areas:
      • Mass - Gram
      • Length- meter
      • Time- second
      • Volume- liter
      • Electricity- Ampere (named after the french mathematician , Andre Marie Ampere) is a unit of electric current.
      • Temperature – Kelvins
      • Conversions are made based on factors of ten:
        • 1000 micrograms = 1 milligram, 1000 milligrams= 1 gram
slide3
Metric System is the preferred system in science and medicine due to its factor of ten basis. Used in most countries in the world
  • Nano =0.000000001
  • Micro = 0.000001
  • Milli =0.001
  • Centi=0.01
  • Deci = 0.1
  • Kilo=1,000
slide4
US Customary Units and British Imperial Systems
    • Development over centuries in the British Isles and later in the US colonies
    • Formally standardized in 1824
    • Still use in the US and Great Britain Today; however, almost all scientific applications use the metric system or the SI system (Système international d'unités )
    • Avoirdupois system is a subsystem of weights in the US and British Systems based on the pound.
      • 1 pound = 16 ounces = 480 grams (actually slightly less)
slide5
The follow is a list of weights and their metric equivalents
    • 1 Grain = 65 mg (5 gr aspirin =325 mg) exception: 1 gr of thyroid, phenobarbital, codeine and nitroglycerin) is 60 mg
    • 2.2 pound = 1 kilograms
    • 1 Dram (symbolized by ʒ) = 3.9 g and 1 f ʒ = 3.9 ml
    • 1 ounce = 28.35 g and 1 fl. Oz= 30 ml
    • 1 pint= 16 ounces and 16 fl.oz= 480 ml
    • 2 pints= 32 ounces and 32 fl.oz = 1 quart = 960 ml=0.96 liters
    • 8 pints= 128 ounces and 128 fl.oz=4 quarts = 1 gallon = 3.8 liters
    • 20 drops = 1 ml
apothecary system
Apothecary System
  • Apothecary system is a system of weights and measure used in Europe during the 18th century by physicians and pharmacist (apothecary)
  • Is a subset of the British Imperial systems
  • The following are important to remember in pharmacy
      • The follow is a list of weights and their metric equivalents
        • 1 Grain = 65 mg (5 gr aspirin =325 mg) exception: 1 gr of thyroid, phenobarbital, codeine and nitroglycerin) is 60 mg
        • 1 Dram (symbolized by ʒ) = 3.9 g and 1 f ʒ = 3.9 ml
        • The following is the symbols for the ounce, scruple, and the pound
        • The apothecary pounds is 12 ounces. The apothecary ounce is the troy ounce which is the 31.1 grams. Precious metals and gemstones are weighted in troy ounces. Gold=Au, Silver= Ag, Platinum = Pt
conversions between units
Conversions between units
  • To make a unit conversion note:
  • units 1 X (unit 2/unit 1) = unit 2
  • Or use the formula in the book:
    • Unit you have X (the unit you need/unit you have)= the unit you need
electrolytes and their units
Electrolytes and their units
  • In medicine electrolytes are reported in the following units: mg/dl and mEq/l
  • Electrolytes that are reported in mEq/l are sodium, potassium.
    • Normal sodium in humans is 135 mEq/l to 145 mEq/ml
      • Low plasma sodium is called hyponatremia and high is hypernatremia.
      • Na is the chemical symbol for sodium. NaCL is the symbol for sodium chloride
      • Sodium is important in the human body. The level of sodium determines the amount of volume that the body holds and hence its blood pressure.
      • Sodium is a major determinate of electrically conductivity of nerves and muscles.
      • A typical order you may see in the hospital for sodium chloride is : infuse NS 500 ml once over 30 minutes
      • A typical prescription you may see for sodium chloride is: NaCl tablet 1 gram TID.
slide9
Normal plasma potassium is 4 mEq/l to 5 mEq/l
    • Low plasma potassium is hypokalemia and high is hyperkalemia
    • The chemical symbol for potassium is K
    • High potassium levels (greater than 9 mEq/l) is very dangerous and can be fatal (death is by cardiac asystole)
    • Potassium is important in conducting electrical impulses in nerves and muscles, like sodium.
    • Potassium is also responsible for setting the resting cell membrane potential and hence is responsible for the responsiveness of nerve or muscle to “fire” an impulse.
    • A prescription for KCL you may see in the retail pharmacy is: Kdur 10® 1 tablet PO BID. Kdur® is the brand name for potassium chloride . Its is a wax cover tablet that is designed to mask the intense metallic taste of KCL. You may see Kdur ® listed as 10 meq or (750 mg).
    • KDur ® is normally given to patients that are taking potassium depleting diuretics like furosemide.
calcium
Calcium
  • The chemical symbol for calcium is Ca
  • Calcium and Magnesium are divalent cations, meaning they have a charge of +2.
  • Sometimes you will see them write as Ca +2 and Mg +2
  • Normal plasma calcium is 8 mg/dl to 10 mg/dl
  • Calcium is important in the body for blood pressure, cardiac function and blood clotting.
  • Calcium is the main determinate for muscular contractility.
  • Calcium is important for bone and teeth integrity.
  • A Prescription you may see for calcium in the community setting is Oscal® 1 tablet TID. Oscal is calcium carbonate 1,250 mg (500 mg of elemental calcium). Oscal D is calcium carbonate with vitamin D 1,250 mg (500 mg elemental calcium) with 200 IU of vitamin D (ergocalciferol)
treatment for hyperkalemia
Treatment for Hyperkalemia
  • Hyperkalemia is a life threatening electrolyte abnormality. (usually potassium level of 9 meq/l or higher is fatal)
  • Calcium is sometimes used to reverse effects of high blood potassium on the heart. An order you may see is
    • 1 gram calcium gluconate IVP X 2
    • 0.3 gram calcium chloride IVP X 2
    • You may also see the following as well:
      • Insulin R 10 units IVP
      • 25 ml of D50W IVP
      • Albuterol 0.083% : 3 ml nebulized every 15 minutes X 3
      • Kayexelate 60 ml orally X2
more less commonly used abbreviations
More less Commonly used abbreviations
  • AMA= against medical advice
  • AV= arteriovenous
  • BE= Barium enema
  • BUN= Blood urea nitrogen
  • CC= chief complaint
  • Cl liq= clear liquids
  • DAT= diet as tolerated
  • Dim= one- half or SS
  • EENT= eye, ear, nose and throat
  • ERT- estrogen replacement therapy
  • FE= iron
  • GTT= glucose tolerance test
  • HRT= Hormone replacement therapy
slide13
Hx= history
  • IM= intramuscular injection
  • I&O= intake and output
  • KCL= potassium chloride
  • mEq= milliequivalent
  • MOM= milk of magnesia
  • NPO= nothing by mouth
  • PRN = as needed
  • PO= by mouth
  • Qs= sufficient quantity
slide14
SSE= soap suds enema
  • Sum= take
  • TPN= total parenteral nutrition
  • Ung= ointment
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