Download Presentation
Pharmacy Units

Loading in 2 Seconds...

1 / 14

# Pharmacy Units - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Pharmacy Units. Measurements and Abbreviations There are others in the Student Handout book The most common ones (Must know) C=Celsius F =Fahrenheit G or gr =Gram Gr. = grain L= liter Ml= Milliliter Mg=Milligram Kg=Kilogram TBSP= tablespoon TSP= Teaspoon Gtt= drop.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Pharmacy Units' - hank

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Pharmacy Units
• Measurements and Abbreviations
• There are others in the Student Handout book
• The most common ones (Must know)
• C=Celsius
• F =Fahrenheit
• G or gr =Gram
• Gr. = grain
• L= liter
• Ml= Milliliter
• Mg=Milligram
• Kg=Kilogram
• TBSP= tablespoon
• TSP= Teaspoon
• Gtt= drop
Measurement Systems
• Metric System- began in France in 1795.
• Denotes basic units of measurement in 6 main areas:
• Mass - Gram
• Length- meter
• Time- second
• Volume- liter
• Electricity- Ampere (named after the french mathematician , Andre Marie Ampere) is a unit of electric current.
• Temperature – Kelvins
• Conversions are made based on factors of ten:
• 1000 micrograms = 1 milligram, 1000 milligrams= 1 gram
Metric System is the preferred system in science and medicine due to its factor of ten basis. Used in most countries in the world
• Nano =0.000000001
• Micro = 0.000001
• Milli =0.001
• Centi=0.01
• Deci = 0.1
• Kilo=1,000
US Customary Units and British Imperial Systems
• Development over centuries in the British Isles and later in the US colonies
• Formally standardized in 1824
• Still use in the US and Great Britain Today; however, almost all scientific applications use the metric system or the SI system (Système international d'unités )
• Avoirdupois system is a subsystem of weights in the US and British Systems based on the pound.
• 1 pound = 16 ounces = 480 grams (actually slightly less)
The follow is a list of weights and their metric equivalents
• 1 Grain = 65 mg (5 gr aspirin =325 mg) exception: 1 gr of thyroid, phenobarbital, codeine and nitroglycerin) is 60 mg
• 2.2 pound = 1 kilograms
• 1 Dram (symbolized by ʒ) = 3.9 g and 1 f ʒ = 3.9 ml
• 1 ounce = 28.35 g and 1 fl. Oz= 30 ml
• 1 pint= 16 ounces and 16 fl.oz= 480 ml
• 2 pints= 32 ounces and 32 fl.oz = 1 quart = 960 ml=0.96 liters
• 8 pints= 128 ounces and 128 fl.oz=4 quarts = 1 gallon = 3.8 liters
• 20 drops = 1 ml
Apothecary System
• Apothecary system is a system of weights and measure used in Europe during the 18th century by physicians and pharmacist (apothecary)
• Is a subset of the British Imperial systems
• The following are important to remember in pharmacy
• The follow is a list of weights and their metric equivalents
• 1 Grain = 65 mg (5 gr aspirin =325 mg) exception: 1 gr of thyroid, phenobarbital, codeine and nitroglycerin) is 60 mg
• 1 Dram (symbolized by ʒ) = 3.9 g and 1 f ʒ = 3.9 ml
• The following is the symbols for the ounce, scruple, and the pound
• The apothecary pounds is 12 ounces. The apothecary ounce is the troy ounce which is the 31.1 grams. Precious metals and gemstones are weighted in troy ounces. Gold=Au, Silver= Ag, Platinum = Pt
Conversions between units
• To make a unit conversion note:
• units 1 X (unit 2/unit 1) = unit 2
• Or use the formula in the book:
• Unit you have X (the unit you need/unit you have)= the unit you need
Electrolytes and their units
• In medicine electrolytes are reported in the following units: mg/dl and mEq/l
• Electrolytes that are reported in mEq/l are sodium, potassium.
• Normal sodium in humans is 135 mEq/l to 145 mEq/ml
• Low plasma sodium is called hyponatremia and high is hypernatremia.
• Na is the chemical symbol for sodium. NaCL is the symbol for sodium chloride
• Sodium is important in the human body. The level of sodium determines the amount of volume that the body holds and hence its blood pressure.
• Sodium is a major determinate of electrically conductivity of nerves and muscles.
• A typical order you may see in the hospital for sodium chloride is : infuse NS 500 ml once over 30 minutes
• A typical prescription you may see for sodium chloride is: NaCl tablet 1 gram TID.
Normal plasma potassium is 4 mEq/l to 5 mEq/l
• Low plasma potassium is hypokalemia and high is hyperkalemia
• The chemical symbol for potassium is K
• High potassium levels (greater than 9 mEq/l) is very dangerous and can be fatal (death is by cardiac asystole)
• Potassium is important in conducting electrical impulses in nerves and muscles, like sodium.
• Potassium is also responsible for setting the resting cell membrane potential and hence is responsible for the responsiveness of nerve or muscle to “fire” an impulse.
• A prescription for KCL you may see in the retail pharmacy is: Kdur 10® 1 tablet PO BID. Kdur® is the brand name for potassium chloride . Its is a wax cover tablet that is designed to mask the intense metallic taste of KCL. You may see Kdur ® listed as 10 meq or (750 mg).
• KDur ® is normally given to patients that are taking potassium depleting diuretics like furosemide.
Calcium
• The chemical symbol for calcium is Ca
• Calcium and Magnesium are divalent cations, meaning they have a charge of +2.
• Sometimes you will see them write as Ca +2 and Mg +2
• Normal plasma calcium is 8 mg/dl to 10 mg/dl
• Calcium is important in the body for blood pressure, cardiac function and blood clotting.
• Calcium is the main determinate for muscular contractility.
• Calcium is important for bone and teeth integrity.
• A Prescription you may see for calcium in the community setting is Oscal® 1 tablet TID. Oscal is calcium carbonate 1,250 mg (500 mg of elemental calcium). Oscal D is calcium carbonate with vitamin D 1,250 mg (500 mg elemental calcium) with 200 IU of vitamin D (ergocalciferol)
Treatment for Hyperkalemia
• Hyperkalemia is a life threatening electrolyte abnormality. (usually potassium level of 9 meq/l or higher is fatal)
• Calcium is sometimes used to reverse effects of high blood potassium on the heart. An order you may see is
• 1 gram calcium gluconate IVP X 2
• 0.3 gram calcium chloride IVP X 2
• You may also see the following as well:
• Insulin R 10 units IVP
• 25 ml of D50W IVP
• Albuterol 0.083% : 3 ml nebulized every 15 minutes X 3
• Kayexelate 60 ml orally X2
More less Commonly used abbreviations
• AMA= against medical advice
• AV= arteriovenous
• BE= Barium enema
• BUN= Blood urea nitrogen
• CC= chief complaint
• Cl liq= clear liquids
• DAT= diet as tolerated
• Dim= one- half or SS
• EENT= eye, ear, nose and throat
• ERT- estrogen replacement therapy
• FE= iron
• GTT= glucose tolerance test
• HRT= Hormone replacement therapy
Hx= history
• IM= intramuscular injection
• I&O= intake and output
• KCL= potassium chloride
• mEq= milliequivalent
• MOM= milk of magnesia
• NPO= nothing by mouth
• PRN = as needed
• PO= by mouth
• Qs= sufficient quantity
SSE= soap suds enema
• Sum= take
• TPN= total parenteral nutrition
• Ung= ointment