ORAL CARE Zenaida B. Soriano,MS Senior ASEAN Expert Cosmetics
ORAL CARE PRODUCTS • Toothbrush • Dentifrice • Oral Rinses
ORAL ENVIRONMENT Teeth Gingiva / Mucosa Saliva Plaque Tartar Caries Periodontal Disease
ORAL ENVIRONMENTTEETH Enamel – hard, white outer covering surrounding the crown of the tooth. Consists of inorganic substances, calcium and phosphate. Cementum – thin, bone-like material covering the root. Also consists of inorganic substances. Dentin – a yellow bone-line material under the enamel • Provides support • Forms bulk of tooth • Composed of collagen (20%) and calcium phosphate (75%) Pulp – soft tissue in the center of the crown and root • Contains nerves, blood vessels and lymph vessels • Produces dentin • Provides nourishment for tooth • Functions as a sensory signal of injury Pellicle – thin salivary film covering the tooth composed of proteins and lipids
Figure 2: The Palatal Surface of the Upper Jaw • A diagrammatic representation of palatal surface of the upper jaw, with a full complement of permanent teeth
ORAL ENVIRONMENTGINGIVA / MUCOSA Gingiva – dense fibrous tissue surrounding necks of teeth • Covered by a smooth mucous membrane which bleeds easily when penetrated • Also called “periodontal tissue” or “gums” Oral mucosa – “mucous membrane” lining the mouth Peridontium - attachment apparatus consisting of • Gingiva • Cementum • Periodontal ligament • Jawbone • Oral mucosa
ORAL ENVIRONMENTSALIVA A complex fluid secreted by salivary glands containing water, mucin, proteins, salts and enzymes. Functions: • aids in digestion • lubricates both hard and soft tissues • buffers cariogenic acids • forms the pellicle • provides minerals for repairing enamel / cementum (remineralization) • delivers antimicrobial agents (immunoglobulins, enzymes, etc.)
ORAL ENVIRONMENTPLAQUE Soft sticky, invisible film constantly forming in your mouth. Covers teeth and gums. • Oral mucosa cells • Saliva • Bacteria Can be removed by brushing and flossing. Gram + cocci Gram + rods Gram – anaerobes (healthy mouth) (gingivitis) Formation / progression influenced by: • Diet • Host immune system • Oral environment
ORAL ENVIRONMENTTARTAR Calcification (crystallization of minerals) on the surface of the tooth formed mainly in the presence of plaque. • Rough surface promotes further growth of plaque • Stains easily (yellow / brown) • Most prevalent near salivary glands and around necks and roots of teeth • Removed only by dentist Tartar Control Agents (Pyrophosphate) • Acts as crystal “poisons” to stop formation • Easily degraded by oral enzymes / stabilized by fluoride and Gantrez.
ORAL ENVIRONMENTCARIES A progressively destructive, infectious disease resulting in: • Demineralization of enamel / cementum • Bacterial penetration to pulp • Formation of macroscopic activity Caries promotion Caries reduction dietary carbohydrate increased salivary flow reduced salivary flow reduced plaque cariogenic bacteria fluoride Sound enamel plaque acid prod saliva acid neutralization mineral loss mineral gain (fluoride) Lesions Cavity
COMPOSITION & CHEMISTRY OF DENTIFRICES DENTIFRICE: A dentifrice is a substance used with a toothbrush for the purpose of cleaning the accessible surfaces of the teeth (American Dental Association) TOOTHPASTE: Toothpaste is a colloidal suspension of a mixture of ingredients that must be carefully balanced in order to provide an efficacious, safe, and consumer friendly product
TOOTHPASTE INGREDIENTS • Abrasive • Binder • Humectant • Sweetener • Flavor • Surfactant • Active Ingredients
ABRASIVE • Function: • Cleaning and polishing • Characteristics: • Solid, insoluble particles • Abrasive • Potential for fluoride interaction
ABRASIVE • Types : • Silica • Phosphate Salts – ie “Dical” • Carbonates – ie Calcium Carbonate or Chalk • Others
Radioactive Dentin Abrasion Method This procedure involves the use of accelerated toothbrushing apparatus and dentin section that contain radioactive phosphorous. The ADA standard was set at 100, which corresponds to RDA value of 475.
Figure 7: In-vitro Abrasion Studies, RDA • This photograph shows a two-brush model abrasion machine, which is used in in vitro dentifrice abrasion studies. Source: Stallard, Richard E. A Textbook of Preventive Dentistry (Second Edition).
Comparative Abrasiveness of some Commercially Available Dentifrices as Determined by a Radioactive Dentin Procedure Source: Stallard, Richard E. A Textbook of Preventive Dentistry (Second Edition).
BINDER • Function: Used to stabilize toothpaste formulations to prevent separation of the liquid and solid phases • Characteristics: Can be natural or synthetic
BINDER • Types: • Natural Polymers • Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) • Carrageenans • Xanthan Gum • Synthetic Polymers • Others
HUMECTANT • Function: Used in toothpaste to prevent loss of water and subsequent hardening of the product upon exposure to air • Characteristics: Affect taste perception Proper usage level produce a clear translucent toothpaste
HUMECTANT • Types: • Glycerine • Sorbitol • Polyethylene Glycol • Xylitol • Propylene Glycol
SWEETENER • Types: • Sodium Saccharin • Sodium Cyclamate • Acesulfame K
SWEETENER • Function: An important part of toothpaste flavoring system • Characteristics: Government regulations Non-cariogenic
FLAVOR • Function: Improve taste of toothpaste • Characteristics: One of the most important factors for consumer A mixture of flavoring agents
FLAVOR • Types: • Minty • Fruity • Medicinal • Cinnamon
Oral products have a unique and specialized flavor requirements. To be successful in oral products, a flavor must: • Have a pleasant taste while brushing • Leave a pleasant taste in your mouth after brushing • Be compatible with the base
All factors being roughly equal – “mouthfeel” appearance, perceived therapeutic attributes, etc. – the consumer will look to flavor as the determinant in selecting a product for use day after day and year after year.
SURFACTANT • Function: Produce foam and aid in the removal of debris Emulsifies flavoring agents • Characteristics: May react with other toothpaste components High level may cause mucosal irritation
SURFACTANT • Types: • Sodium Lauryl Sulfate • Sodium N-Lauroyl Sarcosinate • Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate • PEG Oil
FLUORIDE ACTIVES • Function: Increase resistance to enamel solubility • Characteristics: Regulated by Government Restricted usage level Soluble fluoride ion is essential for activity
FLUORIDE ACTIVES • Types: • Sodium Fluoride NaF • Sodium Monofluorophosphate MFP • Stannous Fluoride SnF2
OTHER ACTIVES • Tartar Polyphosphates Zinc Citrate • Plaque / Gingivitis Triclosan SnF2 Chlorhexidine Zinc Citrate • Desensitizer Potassium Nitrate • Whitening Calcium Peroxide Hydrogen Peroxide
TYPICAL COMPOSITION Ingredients Weight % Humectants 60 – 20 Water 0 – 50 Binders 0 – 12 Abrasive 18 – 50 Flavor 0.5 – 2.0 Sweetener 0.2 – 1.0 Surfactant 0.5 – 2.0 Fluoride 0.2 – 1.2
TOOTHPASTE CONSIDERATIONS • Safety • Efficacy • Consumer Friendly • Pleasing taste • Ease of use • Pleasing appearance
PRODUCT CRITERIA • Minimum one year shelf life • Easily dispensable • Compatible with the package • Efficacious • Safe