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ORAL CARE

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ORAL CARE

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  1. ORAL CARE Zenaida B. Soriano,MS Senior ASEAN Expert Cosmetics

  2. ORAL CARE PRODUCTS • Toothbrush • Dentifrice • Oral Rinses

  3. ORAL ENVIRONMENT

  4. ORAL ENVIRONMENT Teeth Gingiva / Mucosa Saliva Plaque Tartar Caries Periodontal Disease

  5. ORAL ENVIRONMENTTEETH Enamel – hard, white outer covering surrounding the crown of the tooth. Consists of inorganic substances, calcium and phosphate. Cementum – thin, bone-like material covering the root. Also consists of inorganic substances. Dentin – a yellow bone-line material under the enamel • Provides support • Forms bulk of tooth • Composed of collagen (20%) and calcium phosphate (75%) Pulp – soft tissue in the center of the crown and root • Contains nerves, blood vessels and lymph vessels • Produces dentin • Provides nourishment for tooth • Functions as a sensory signal of injury Pellicle – thin salivary film covering the tooth composed of proteins and lipids

  6. Figure 1: Diagrammatic Sketch of the Tooth and Periodontal Tissue

  7. Figure 2: The Palatal Surface of the Upper Jaw • A diagrammatic representation of palatal surface of the upper jaw, with a full complement of permanent teeth

  8. Figure 3: The Maxillary Teeth

  9. Figure 4: The Mandibular Teeth

  10. Figure 5: The Deciduous Teeth

  11. Figure 6: The Permanent Teeth

  12. Table 1: Approximate Age of Tooth Eruption

  13. ORAL ENVIRONMENTGINGIVA / MUCOSA Gingiva – dense fibrous tissue surrounding necks of teeth • Covered by a smooth mucous membrane which bleeds easily when penetrated • Also called “periodontal tissue” or “gums” Oral mucosa – “mucous membrane” lining the mouth Peridontium - attachment apparatus consisting of • Gingiva • Cementum • Periodontal ligament • Jawbone • Oral mucosa

  14. ORAL ENVIRONMENTSALIVA A complex fluid secreted by salivary glands containing water, mucin, proteins, salts and enzymes. Functions: • aids in digestion • lubricates both hard and soft tissues • buffers cariogenic acids • forms the pellicle • provides minerals for repairing enamel / cementum (remineralization) • delivers antimicrobial agents (immunoglobulins, enzymes, etc.)

  15. ORAL ENVIRONMENTPLAQUE Soft sticky, invisible film constantly forming in your mouth. Covers teeth and gums. • Oral mucosa cells • Saliva • Bacteria Can be removed by brushing and flossing. Gram + cocci Gram + rods Gram – anaerobes (healthy mouth) (gingivitis) Formation / progression influenced by: • Diet • Host immune system • Oral environment

  16. Inhibition of Plaque Accumulation

  17. ORAL ENVIRONMENTTARTAR Calcification (crystallization of minerals) on the surface of the tooth formed mainly in the presence of plaque. • Rough surface promotes further growth of plaque • Stains easily (yellow / brown) • Most prevalent near salivary glands and around necks and roots of teeth • Removed only by dentist Tartar Control Agents (Pyrophosphate) • Acts as crystal “poisons” to stop formation • Easily degraded by oral enzymes / stabilized by fluoride and Gantrez.

  18. ORAL ENVIRONMENTCARIES A progressively destructive, infectious disease resulting in: • Demineralization of enamel / cementum • Bacterial penetration to pulp • Formation of macroscopic activity Caries promotion Caries reduction dietary carbohydrate increased salivary flow reduced salivary flow reduced plaque cariogenic bacteria fluoride Sound enamel plaque acid prod saliva acid neutralization mineral loss mineral gain (fluoride) Lesions Cavity

  19. COMPOSITION & CHEMISTRY OF DENTIFRICES

  20. COMPOSITION & CHEMISTRY OF DENTIFRICES DENTIFRICE: A dentifrice is a substance used with a toothbrush for the purpose of cleaning the accessible surfaces of the teeth (American Dental Association) TOOTHPASTE: Toothpaste is a colloidal suspension of a mixture of ingredients that must be carefully balanced in order to provide an efficacious, safe, and consumer friendly product

  21. TOOTHPASTE INGREDIENTS • Abrasive • Binder • Humectant • Sweetener • Flavor • Surfactant • Active Ingredients

  22. ABRASIVE • Function: • Cleaning and polishing • Characteristics: • Solid, insoluble particles • Abrasive • Potential for fluoride interaction

  23. ABRASIVE • Types : • Silica • Phosphate Salts – ie “Dical” • Carbonates – ie Calcium Carbonate or Chalk • Others

  24. Radioactive Dentin Abrasion Method This procedure involves the use of accelerated toothbrushing apparatus and dentin section that contain radioactive phosphorous. The ADA standard was set at 100, which corresponds to RDA value of 475.

  25. Figure 7: In-vitro Abrasion Studies, RDA • This photograph shows a two-brush model abrasion machine, which is used in in vitro dentifrice abrasion studies. Source: Stallard, Richard E. A Textbook of Preventive Dentistry (Second Edition).

  26. Comparative Abrasiveness of some Commercially Available Dentifrices as Determined by a Radioactive Dentin Procedure Source: Stallard, Richard E. A Textbook of Preventive Dentistry (Second Edition).

  27. BINDER • Function: Used to stabilize toothpaste formulations to prevent separation of the liquid and solid phases • Characteristics: Can be natural or synthetic

  28. BINDER • Types: • Natural Polymers • Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) • Carrageenans • Xanthan Gum • Synthetic Polymers • Others

  29. HUMECTANT • Function: Used in toothpaste to prevent loss of water and subsequent hardening of the product upon exposure to air • Characteristics: Affect taste perception Proper usage level produce a clear translucent toothpaste

  30. HUMECTANT • Types: • Glycerine • Sorbitol • Polyethylene Glycol • Xylitol • Propylene Glycol

  31. SWEETENER • Types: • Sodium Saccharin • Sodium Cyclamate • Acesulfame K

  32. SWEETENER • Function: An important part of toothpaste flavoring system • Characteristics: Government regulations Non-cariogenic

  33. FLAVOR • Function: Improve taste of toothpaste • Characteristics: One of the most important factors for consumer A mixture of flavoring agents

  34. FLAVOR • Types: • Minty • Fruity • Medicinal • Cinnamon

  35. Oral products have a unique and specialized flavor requirements. To be successful in oral products, a flavor must: • Have a pleasant taste while brushing • Leave a pleasant taste in your mouth after brushing • Be compatible with the base

  36. All factors being roughly equal – “mouthfeel” appearance, perceived therapeutic attributes, etc. – the consumer will look to flavor as the determinant in selecting a product for use day after day and year after year.

  37. SURFACTANT • Function: Produce foam and aid in the removal of debris Emulsifies flavoring agents • Characteristics: May react with other toothpaste components High level may cause mucosal irritation

  38. SURFACTANT • Types: • Sodium Lauryl Sulfate • Sodium N-Lauroyl Sarcosinate • Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate • PEG Oil

  39. FLUORIDE ACTIVES • Function: Increase resistance to enamel solubility • Characteristics: Regulated by Government Restricted usage level Soluble fluoride ion is essential for activity

  40. FLUORIDE ACTIVES • Types: • Sodium Fluoride NaF • Sodium Monofluorophosphate MFP • Stannous Fluoride SnF2

  41. Anticaries Dentifrices: FDA Tentative Final Monograph

  42. OTHER ACTIVES • Tartar Polyphosphates Zinc Citrate • Plaque / Gingivitis Triclosan SnF2 Chlorhexidine Zinc Citrate • Desensitizer Potassium Nitrate • Whitening Calcium Peroxide Hydrogen Peroxide

  43. TYPICAL COMPOSITION Ingredients Weight % Humectants 60 – 20 Water 0 – 50 Binders 0 – 12 Abrasive 18 – 50 Flavor 0.5 – 2.0 Sweetener 0.2 – 1.0 Surfactant 0.5 – 2.0 Fluoride 0.2 – 1.2

  44. U.S. FORMULA COMPARISON

  45. TOOTHPASTE CONSIDERATIONS • Safety • Efficacy • Consumer Friendly • Pleasing taste • Ease of use • Pleasing appearance

  46. PRODUCT CRITERIA • Minimum one year shelf life • Easily dispensable • Compatible with the package • Efficacious • Safe

  47. MOUTHWASHES or ORAL RINSES

  48. Ingredients of Dentifrices and Oral Rinses

  49. Mouthwash Components

  50. Thank You