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  1. Context-Aware Web Search in Ubiquitous Sensor Environments TAKUYA MAEKAWA,YUTAKA YANAGISAWA,YASUSHI SAKURAI, and YASUE KISHINO KOJI KAMEI TAKESHI OKADOME Publication date: January 2012 CSU ID : 2556218 Hardik Parikh

  2. Introduction • Next–generation web browsers will be embedded in living environments • ADLs:Activities of daily living • Making tea • Brushing teeth • Idea : Web browsers embedded in electronic appliances will be able to provide useful information to a user’s activities of daily living (ADLs)

  3. What is proposed in the paper? • A daily life web search method that automatically retrieves a webpage related to user’s ADL. • Automatic query generation about ADLs ,Search the web and display a webpage that matches the query. • Sensors are used to detect the movement of objects.

  4. Daily life web search method Use Detection Cluster Objects Web Search

  5. Use Detection • Sensor nodes are attached to daily objects to monitor their use. • All sensors are equipped with three axis accelerometer. • Time period during which acceleration data changes greatly coincides with the period during which an object is used.

  6. Sensors attached to a cup

  7. Daily life web search method Use Detection Cluster Objects Web Search

  8. Cluster Objects • DoS : Degree of being used in the Same ADL. • The measure for determining whether 2 objects are used in the same ADL. • Temp(X,Y,t) : Degree to which X and Y are used simultaneously in t. • Hist(X,Y):Degree to which X and Y are used simultaneously in past dataset. • Sem(X,Y):Semantic relevance between X and Y

  9. Daily life web search method Use Detection Cluster Objects Web Search

  10. Web Search • Sub queries are created from each cluster and then web pages are obtained corresponding to the query. • Web Search procedure consists of 3 procedures. • Query making • Search • Re ranking

  11. Query Making • It uses vector representation of a cluster in which importance of an object in a cluster is represented. • i.e. <juicer,3.0>,<milk,2.0>,<cup,1.0>,<sugar,0.5> • Vector Expansion • Expand current vector context vector by using vectors that were constructed in the past. • Making Sub queries • Makes multiple sub queries by extracting objects from a vector. • For context vector(Juicer ,cup,milk and sugar) and l=2 and s=2, • # of subqueries :juicer cup,juicermilk,juicersugar,cupmilk,cup sugar • Query Expansion • Combine topic related term and genre related term to make a good query. • i.e Camera + Buying/Choosing • 4 genre terms :How-to,advice,tips,trivia

  12. Re ranking • Multiple search results are obtained by sending multiple sub queries constructed in query making to a search engine. • Re ranking is performed by using similarity measure between a context vector and a webpage • Combine multiple rankings into one ranking

  13. Experiment • Objects : an induction heater, Coffee maker, vacuum cleaner, cabinets and table and many more. Total 50 objects were used. • Expected ADLs: 24 • Duration : 16 days from 10:00 AM to 5:00 PM • Participants mainly consisted of four office staff.

  14. Experimental Environment

  15. Evaluation of Web Search • Four participants evaluated the pages mainly from 2 standpoints : • Making tea –Exactly relevant • Health benefits of tea – Somewhat relevant • World Cup = Not relevant

  16. Web Search Methods • Baseline • Top-2 • Top-3 • History • Markov Chain • Cosine Similarity • Term Distance • Text Analysis • Snippet

  17. Results-I

  18. Results-II

  19. Summary of the experiment • A query consisting of 3 terms was reasonable in obtaining ADL-related pages. • Incorporating object use histories into query making improved retrieval accuracy. • Vector expansion errors reduced retrieval accuracy.

  20. Effect of daily life web search • Web browsers for 2 kinds of appliances • Web browser on a Television • ADL – related • TV program related • Newly arriving news pages • Notification method • Web browser on Refrigerator • Only ADL-related pages • Notification method is identical to TV browser

  21. Implemented Web browsers

  22. Long Term Study Summary • Long term user study (7 weeks) in experimental environment using browsers • ADL related pages actually affected the participants’ daily lives. • ADL related pages triggered conversations among participants • ADL related pages played a role as a time killer during short breaks between ADLs.

  23. Feedback • “The browsers enhanced communications. When I made coffee, a page related to expensive coffee beans was shown. Then we talked about how cheap the coffee beans we always drink are” • “I learned that coffee grounds can be used as an air freshener for the refrigerator in my home” • “I knew gargling with green tea was good for a sore throat and eliminating bad breath. So When I have a sore throat I gargle with green tea.”

  24. Conclusion • A new kind of Web Search method for Internet-enabled home appliances that retrieves WebPages related to activities performed by the user in his / her daily life. • User can access information that enriches daily life and improves daily activities. • Satisfaction from obtaining background knowledge about items in their lives. • Future Work : A new search engine specifically for daily life web searches.