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Issues for Increasing Graduation Rates and Preparing Students for Postsecondary Studies and Careers. Gene Bottoms Senior Vice President Southern Regional Education Board gene.bottoms@sreb.org. What are some key facts for Delaware?. Graduation Rates (2006) Neighboring States.

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issues for increasing graduation rates and preparing students for postsecondary studies and careers

Issues for Increasing Graduation Rates and Preparing Students for Postsecondary Studies and Careers

Gene Bottoms

Senior Vice President

Southern Regional Education Board

gene.bottoms@sreb.org

graduation rates 2006 neighboring states
Graduation Rates (2006)Neighboring States

U.S. Rate:73%SREB Median State Rate:72%

*NCES ― Averaged Freshman Graduation Rate

Source: NCES. Public School Graduates from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2005-06. (NCES 2008-353) August 2008

Delaware

ninth grade bulge in selected states
Ninth-Grade Bulge in Selected States

Source: NCES Common Core of Data

Delaware

retained students
Retained students —
  • Do less well than similar low-performing students who are promoted
  • Are 30% to 65% more likely to drop out

“The research evidence is absolutely one-sided in finding negative effects from flunking students.”

Delaware

percentage of schools with a promotion power of 60 percent or less selected states
Percentage of Schools* with a Promotion Power of 60 Percent or Less – Selected States

*Schools of 100+ students, with both 9th- and 12th-grade classes

Source: Johns Hopkins University, Dropout Factories

Delaware

slide7
Middle Grades to Ninth Grade Transition: Ready for High School College-Preparatory English and Algebra I ― Delaware

Source: 2007 NAEP

Delaware

gains in sat composite scores 1998 2008
Gains in SAT Composite Scores1998-2008

Source: The College Board, Verbal/mathematics composite

Delaware

percentages of ged candidates in 2006 ages 16 to 19
Percentages of GED Candidates in 2006 ― Ages 16 to 19

Source: 2006 GED Testing Program Statistical Report

Delaware

why students fail to complete high school
Why Students Fail to Complete High School
  • Feeling unmotivated or inspired to work hard – 69%
  • A lack of connection to the school environment, a gradual process of disengagement – 60%
  • A perception that school is boring, classes are uninteresting – 47%
  • Falling behind or failing in school – 39%

Source: Bridgeland, John M. The Silent Epidemic, 2006

Delaware

prison cost in five states in 2007 exceed spending on higher education
Prison Cost in Five States in 2007 Exceed Spending on Higher Education
  • Vermont
  • Michigan
  • Oregon
  • Connecticut
  • Delaware

All 50 states average 60 cents spent

on correction for every dollar

spend on higher education.

Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

Delaware

life time income loss for non graduates for the class of 2008
Life Time Income Loss for Non-Graduates for the Class of 2008

Source: Alliance for Excellent Education

Delaware

what can states and local school boards ask schools to do
What can states and local school boards ask schools to do?
  • Address widening gap between assignments given to students and grade-level standards.

Delaware

pattern continues in hs
Pattern Continues in HS

Source: John Holton, South Carolina Department of Education, analysis of English Language Arts Assignments in14 High Schools in South Carolina

Delaware

state middle grades initiatives
State Middle Grades Initiatives
  • Accelerate math instruction for failing students, rather than relying on remediation strategies - Texas
  • Make reading and writing for learning a priority for all subjects and grade levels - Florida

Delaware

policy impact on improving eighth grade math achievement
Policy Impact on Improving Eighth-Grade Math Achievement

Source: National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)

Delaware

preparing middle grades students for high school success

Preparing Middle Grades Students for High School Success

A Comparative Study of Most- and Least-Improved Middle Grades School

See Draft Report

Delaware

most improved schools made more progress in
Most-Improved Schools Made More Progress in:
  • Teaching more students to grade-level standards and supporting them in meeting standards
  • Embedding reading standards and literacy strategies into all classes
  • Having more students complete Algebra I by end of grade eight

Delaware

most improved schools made more progress in25
Most-Improved Schools Made More Progress In:
  • Emphasizing problem-solving skills and mathematics understanding
  • Engaging students in hands-on assignments in science
  • Involving teachers in continuous school improvement
  • Teaching students the habits for success

Delaware

importance of ninth grade
Importance of Ninth Grade
  • It’s a “make or break” year
  • High failure rate in grade nine
  • Failure reduces likelihood of graduation
  • Few goals, few connections, little relevancy lead to dropping out

Delaware

need for ninth grade redesign
Need for Ninth-Grade Redesign

Too many students:

  • Perform below grade level in reading and mathematics
  • Lack study skills
  • Fail to pass ninth-grade exams
  • Do not have an adult mentor
  • Do not have a firm post high school goal
  • Fail to see meaning in their studies

Delaware

ninth graders need to
Ninth-graders need to…
  • Complete college-prep English and Algebra I
  • Declare and commit to a goal beyond high school
  • Establish a connection with a supportive adult
  • Develop study, relationship and time-management skills
  • Experience academics through authentic activities, projects and problems

Delaware

components of effective ninth grade programs
Components of EffectiveNinth-Grade Programs
  • Early orientation
  • Summer bridge program for unprepared 7th- and 8th-grade students
  • Catch-up courses in reading, writing and mathematics for grades 8 and 9
  • Project-based exploratory course(s)
  • Extra help, extra time, credit recovery
  • Adult mentor/adviser
  • Redo/Reteach

Delaware

practices at 20 high graduation schools compared with 20 low graduation schools
Practices at 20 High-Graduation Schools Compared with 20Low-Graduation Schools

Source: SREB Special Analysis

Delaware

practices at high graduation schools
Practices atHigh-Graduation Schools
  • Strong ninth-grade initiative with multiple emphases, including:
    • Career and education exploration
    • Choosing a focus goal for high school studies
    • Catch-up strategies to help more students reach grade level in reading and mathematics

Source: SREB Special Analysis

Delaware

practices at high graduation schools33
Practices atHigh-Graduation Schools
  • More students take six or more career/technical credits and nearly twice the rate of at-risk students take six or more career/technical credits compared with low-graduation schools
  • Greater emphasis by career/technical teachers on teaching academics embedded in assigned projects

Source: SREB Special Analysis

Delaware

percentages of students taking six or more ct credits at high and low graduation schools
Percentages of Students Taking Six or More CT Credits at High- and Low-Graduation Schools

Source: SREB Special Analysis

Delaware

practices at high graduation schools35
Practices atHigh-Graduation Schools
  • More students complete the college-preparatory academic core
  • Fewer faculty believe it is important to sort students by perceived ability level

Source: SREB Special Analysis

Delaware

practices at high graduation schools36
Practices atHigh-Graduation Schools
  • Provide support and assistance for grades and credit recovery
  • Emphasis is on getting students to standards, not failing

Source: SREB Special Analysis

Delaware

practices at high graduation schools37
Practices atHigh-Graduation Schools
  • Students are connected to adults through a teacher-adviser, mentor or small learning communities
  • School leadership focuses on specific goals and engages the faculty in continuous school improvement using a variety of data and strategies

Source: SREB Special Analysis

Delaware

slide38
Conditions for creating career-focused programs of study that will improve readiness and completion rates?

Delaware

slide39

Condition 1: A rigorous academic core curriculum is the foundation for any career-focused program of study.

Delaware

why a rigorous academic core more students meet readiness goals
Why a Rigorous Academic Core?More Students Meet Readiness Goals

Source: 2006 HSTW Assessment

Delaware

slide41

Condition 2: High-quality CT programs of study with academic standards for reading, writing and mathematics embedded into the curriculum and engage students in applying those academics to authentic assignments.(Contextual Learning)

Delaware

slide42

Percentages of CT Students Meeting Readiness Goals When Experiencing HSTW-Recommended Academic Core and CT Studies with Embedded Academics

85%

80%

89%

78%

62%

70%

Source: HSTW Assessment

Delaware

slide43

Condition 3: High-quality CT programs of study emphasize 21st-century skills/intellectually demanding assignments

  • Critical thinking/problem solving
  • Oral and written communication skills
  • Teamwork/collaboration
  • Doing quality work timely and redoing it until it meets standards
  • Using technology to complete assignments

Delaware

condition 4 expect students to meet standards in all classrooms
Condition 4: Expect Students to Meet Standards in all Classrooms
  • Teachers are clear about quality of work expected
  • Have students redo work until standards are met

Delaware

slide45
CT Concentrators per 100 Meeting Readiness Goals in Reading and Mathematics when in Classes with High Expectations

Source: 2006 HSTW Assessment

Delaware

slide46

Condition 5: Provide students the extra help they need to meet college- and career-readiness standards.

  • Ninth-grade redesign
  • Senior-year readiness
  • Grade and credit recovery

Delaware

are students receiving the extra help they need to meet college and career readiness standards
Are students receiving the extra help they need to meet college- and career-readiness standards?

Yes, when:

  • Adults believe that, given the right environment, most students can master complex academic and technical skills.
  • Schools do not differentiate programs of study as “heads-on” work for some and “hands-on” for others.
  • Schools provide additional time and support.

Delaware

slide48

Condition 6: Connect students with an adult who serves as their mentor/adviser and sees that students set postsecondary goals, develop a plan to achieve those goals, and receive the assistance and support needed to succeed.

Delaware

how can advisers or mentors help students
How can advisers or mentors help students?
  • Help students set tentative educational and career goals.
  • Have students choose a program of study based on interest and not on past achievement.
  • View initial student choices as exploratory and accommodate revised decisions.
  • Provide students the assistance and support to succeed.

Delaware

why connect students more students take the right courses and plan postsecondary studies
Why Connect Students? More Students Take the Right Courses and Plan Postsecondary Studies

Source: 2006 HSTW Assessment

Delaware

redesign ct courses for academic credit
Redesign CT Courses for Academic Credit
  • Need policy to accept the substitute credit.
  • Double-block period to earn academic and CT credit and to accommodate project-based learning.
  • Taught by qualified teachers with credentials in the academic content area.
  • End-of-course exams to validate academic achievement.

Delaware

slide55

Offer career-focused programs of study through a variety of school structures:

  • career academies
  • career majors
  • magnet schools
  • small learning communities with a career focus
  • dual credit with postsecondary institutions
  • technical high schools
  • shared-time technology centers

Delaware

guiding principles for state actions
Guiding Principles for State Actions
  • Give balanced emphasis to improving achievement and raising graduation rates.
  • Encourage school and district leaders to set and meet ambitious goals.
  • Provide support and incentives rather than emphasis on negative outcomes.
  • Set ambitious graduation rates.
  • Recognize that some schools face greater challenges than others.

Delaware

create multiple pathways readiness for postsecondary study and careers
Create Multiple Pathways: Readiness for Postsecondary Study and Careers
  • Career-focused programs of study that combine challenging academics and quality CT studies can retain more students in school.
  • Overage students who are behind academically and students with other personal problems may need a pathway outside traditional high school.
  • Recognize a range of graduation paths, while emphasizing a standard diploma for most students.

Delaware

assign relative value to categories of high school graduation
Assign Relative Value to Categories of High School Graduation
  • Graduate in 4 years or fewer with a standard diploma
  • Graduate in more than 4 years with a standard diploma
  • Earn a standard diploma through adult education
  • Return after dropping out and earn a standard diploma
  • Earn a GED and employer certification
  • Earn a GED
  • Earn a Certificate of Attendance

Delaware

assign relative value to include percent who
Assign Relative Value to Include Percent Who:
  • Are ready to begin college
  • Are ready to enter a high-demand career/occupation or begin further career preparation
  • Have succeeded in academically challenging courses and programs such as AP and International Baccalaureate (IB)
  • Have completed a career concentration and earned an employer certification
  • Enter postsecondary education early, either through dual credit or joint enrollment programs

Delaware

highlight high school readiness in two ways
Highlight high school readiness in two ways:
  • Define statewide ninth-grade readiness standards.
  • Recognize schools for helping unprepared ninth-grade students to graduate.

Delaware

support practices to help high schools meet achievement and graduation goals
Support Practices to Help High Schools Meet Achievement and Graduation Goals
  • Accelerate learning in the middle grades.
  • Establish a formal process that ensures students receive the help needed to stay in school and achieve at reasonable levels.
  • Redesign the ninth grade as a statewide priority
  • Develop career-focused programs of study that join core academic studies with high-quality CT studies as early as grade nine

Delaware

support practices to help high schools meet achievement and graduation goals63
Support Practices to Help High Schools Meet Achievement and Graduation Goals
  • Establish a statewide process for determining the status of high school juniors with respect to their preparation for graduation and readiness for college and/or careers.
  • Provide help for students who have a history of academic failure and provide opportunities for grade and credit recovery.
  • Establish pathways to graduation outside traditional high school.

Delaware