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the 70s 80s 90s and today mr pagliaro seymour high school @ pagsapush n.
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From Nixon to Obama PowerPoint Presentation
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From Nixon to Obama

From Nixon to Obama

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From Nixon to Obama

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  1. The 70s, 80s, 90s, and Today… Mr. Pagliaro Seymour High School @PagsAPUSH From Nixon to Obama

  2. Nixon & Vietnam Hawks, Doves, the Silent Majority, and the End of the War

  3. Doves demand peace • Doves preferred withdrawal from Vietnam • Massive protest • Immediate withdrawal • Sen. William Fulbright (Dem.- Ark.) • The Arrogance of Power (1966) – critique of war • Stated war wasn’t necessary for containment • Promoted neutrality; isolationism

  4. Hawks & the Silent Majority • Hawks: • Supported war in Vietnam • Believed withdrawal = surrender • Silent Majority: • Named by Nixon • America that quietly supported war policies • Justified support of So. Vietnam

  5. Invasion of Cambodia - 1970

  6. The Kent State (OH) Protest

  7. The Kent State (OH) Massacre

  8. Student Strike of 1970

  9. Ending the Vietnam War • Easter Offensive– No. Vietnam failure • Operation Linebacker 1 & 2: Heavy bombings of No. Vietnam, 1972 • Paris Accords, 1973 • Emerged after secret negotiations btw. Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger & No. Vietnamese • Withdrawal of troops • Freeing of American 500+ P.O.W.s • Final Americans left Saigon, April 30, 1975 – Operation Frequent Wind The fall of Saigon

  10. Consequences of Vietnam • Economic effects: • US couldn’t afford Great Society & Vietnam War • War costs + Social Programs = high inflation 60s-70s • Nixon Shockattempted to fight inflation • Foreign Policy effects: • Public skepticism of American international involvement • War Powers Act (1973) – • President must inform Congress within 48 hours IF… • Military sent to hostile area w/o declaring war

  11. Nixon and Détente China, the Soviet Union, SALT talks

  12. Background of Détente • Existence of the Cold War • Tension among US & USSR • Berlin airlift, Cuban Missile Crisis, Berlin Wall • US had no diplomatic relationship w/ China • Kissinger convinced Nixon to create flexible foreign policy • Détente called for relaxed Cold War tensions

  13. Détente & China • 1971-Nixon announced visit to China • “…to normalize relations between the countries.” • Visited Beijing, Feb. 1972

  14. Nixon in China • Formalized relations w/ PRC • US maintained relationship w/ RoC until 1979

  15. Détente and USSR • Nixon = 1st President in Moscow • Visit led to reduced tensions • Agreements included SALT talks, economic initiatives

  16. SALT Talks • Strategic Arms Limitation Talks • SALT I treaty between USSR and USA: • Signed by President Gerald Ford • Limited # of ICBMs • Limited # of nuclear armed subs

  17. Nixon and the New Federalism Connecting Federal, State, & Local governments, CReeP, Watergate

  18. Background • Great Society increased federal influence & spending • Nixon wanted to REDUCE size of federal gov’t

  19. The New Federalism • Distribute federal power to state/local governments • Revenue sharing • State/municipalities chose how to spend federal funding • Certain limitations • Increased state autonomy lost in New Deal • Examples • Legacy of Parks, 1971 • Education $

  20. Election of 1972 Nixon - Republicans McGovern - Democrats Antiwar policies Guaranteed minimum income • Good economy • Foreign relations • Desegregation of all schools w/o busing

  21. Watergate Scandal • Nixon kept tabs on rivals & enemies • Taped conversations • Committee to Re-Elect the President (CRP or creep) • June 17, 1972 • 5 men arrested • breaking into HQ of DNC @ Watergate Hotel • Phone tapping, breaking-and-entering • Convicted January 1973

  22. Election of 1972 (Cont’d.) • Nixon won 520-17 w/ 60.7% of vote

  23. Watergate, (Cont’d.) • Watergate tapes • Turned over during impeachment trials • Forced resignation of Nixon-8/8/74 Sept. 8, 1974

  24. Jimmy Carter Bicentennial, Election of ‘76, Frostbelt to Sunbelt, the 70s economy, Camp David Accords, Iran, Election of 1980

  25. The Bicentennial • OpSail – Tall Ship “parades” • Opening of Nat’l Air & Space Museum • School House Rock – History Rock specials • TV Specials – • In Celebration of US (CBS), 14 hour coverage hosted by Walter Cronkite • The Glorious Fourth (NBC), 10 hour coverage • The Great American Birthday Party (ABC), hosted by Harry Reasoner • Happy Birthday, America (NBC), • hosted by Paul Anka • Bob Hope's Bicentennial Star-Spangled Spectacular (NBC) • Special commemorative coins

  26. Election of 1976 Gerald Ford – Republican Electoral Votes – 240 States Carried – 27 Popular Vote – 48% Jimmy Carter - Democrat Electoral Votes – 297 States Carried – 23 Popular Vote – 50.1

  27. Frostbelt to Sunbelt • Mid-70s to 90s– fastest growing States = south of 37°N • Movement of jobs • Tax incentives

  28. Latino & Asian Immigration • Past 25 years – large increase in both • Latinos = 78% since 2000 • Latinos=33% TX, CA, AZ, 40% NM

  29. La Raza/Chicano Movement • Latino efforts for educational/economic access • Cesar Chavez • Reies Lopez Tijerina • Rodolfo Gonzalez • ¡Si, se puede!

  30. Carter & the Economy • Biggest domestic concern – INFLATION • US – increasing inflation over 70s • Slow economic growth • Led to unemployment • Rising inflation + Rising unemployment=STAGFLATION • Caused by Nixon price/wage controls, OPECembargo of US (due toYom Kippur war)

  31. Major issues of Economy during Carter administration • Increased inflation • Increased unemployment • Increased government spending • Increased gas prices due to: • Arab oil embargo (1973) • Iranian Revolution (1979) • Increased interest rates

  32. Historic Oil Prices/Production 1861-2008 1979 Iranian Oil Crisis 1973 Arab Oil Embargo

  33. Effects of Energy Crisis • Carter’s “Crisis of Confidence Speech” • White House solar panels • Detroit improved fuel economy • Smaller engines • Electronic fuel injection

  34. Causes of Inflation in the 70s • Vietnam spending • Rising energy costs • Federal budget deficits • Healthcare costs

  35. Carter Foreign Policy • Foreign policy based on human rights • Made it an international issue • Camp David Accords • Leaders of Israel & Egypt met @ Camp David, MD • 12 day negotiations • Peace agreement over Sinai region

  36. SALT II • Signed 1979 – Reduction in #s and use of MIRVs • Never ratified  Soviets invaded Afghanistan, 1979

  37. Iran Hostages • Jan. 78-Feb. 79-Shah overthrown • Religious leaders take controlAyatollah • US provided healthcare to Shah • US ally = Israel • Iranian revolutionaries overthrow US embassy • Take 52 hostages • Nov. 4, 1979 to Jan. 20, 1981

  38. The 1980 Election • Carter vs. Ronald Reagan • Issues – • Iranian Hostages • Weak economy/high inflation (double digits) • Hostility towards big government • Call for conservative Supreme Court

  39. NeoConservativism • Republicans successfully defeated the Democrat Coalition on… • Social issues such as – • Affirmative action • Women’s rights • Sexual freedom • Blue collar workers moved towards Republicans • The New Right – religious right, military, blue collar • Reagan promised to increase military; cut taxes

  40. The Reagan Revolution • Reagan – 489Carter – 44 • Reagan – 50.7%Carter – 41% • Republicans controlled Senate after 1980

  41. Reagan Iran, Reaganomics, USSR Summits, Grenada, Iran-Contras

  42. The end of the Iran Hostage Situation

  43. Reaganomics • Supply-side economic policy goals • Reduce tax rates for businesses/wealthy • Reduce corporate tax rates • Encourage private investment • Limit Federal regulation of business • “Trickle down” Theory

  44. The 4 Pillars of Reaganomics • Reduce Government spending. • Reduce Income Tax and Capital Gains Tax. • Reduce Government regulation. • Control the money supply to reduce inflation.

  45. Deregulation • Airlines • Railroads • Trucking • Telephones • Natural gas • Oil/Energy • Banking Reduced funding of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 1981 – Reagan fires 11,500, striking FAA air traffic controllers

  46. Supply-Side Economics in Action • 1981 – Federal Taxes cut 5% • Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (Kemp-Roth Tax Cut) • 1982 – cut 10% •  Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 • 1983 – cut 10% • Government social spending reduced: • Education aid • Urban housing programs • Arts

  47. Arguments against Reaganomics

  48. Social Spending Down – Defense Up • Reagan’s defense budget increased $13 billion 1981-83 • Proposed Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) • “Star Wars”

  49. Grenada ‘83 • Fighting communism or American Imperialism?