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CS2100 Computer Organisation http://www.comp.nus.edu.sg/~cs2100/. Introduction to Computer Organisation (AY2013/2014) Semester 2. Overview. The Big Picture Brief History of Computer Current Trend The Course (2 nd Part) Von Neumann Architecture Instruction Set Architecture

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Cs2100 computer organisation http www comp nus edu sg cs2100

CS2100 Computer Organisationhttp://www.comp.nus.edu.sg/~cs2100/

Introduction to Computer Organisation

(AY2013/2014) Semester 2


  • The Big Picture

    • Brief History of Computer

    • Current Trend

  • The Course (2nd Part)

    • Von Neumann Architecture

    • Instruction Set Architecture

    • Compilation Flow

    • Instruction Execution Flow

Computer Organisation

The brief history of computers
The Brief History of Computers

Computer Organisation

The brief history supercomputer
The Brief History: Supercomputer

[ CS5222 Adv. Comp. Arch. AY1314S2 ]

The brief history 2012 embedded
The Brief History: 2012 – Embedded

  • Everywhere

    • Smart-phone

    • Game consoles

    • DVD / Blue-Ray player

    • Car, Fridge, Washing Machine……… etc etc

Computer Organisation

Summary from a few to many n

2000 - 2011

100M – 2.2B

1970 - 1980

2K – 100K

1980 - 1990

100K – 1M

1990 - 2000

1M – 100M

Summary: From a few to manyn

Transistor is the building block of CPU since 1960s

Current World Population = 7Billion

about the number of transistors in 3 CPU chips!

Computer Organisation

Summary from big to small



1.5 µm

Pentium 4


0.180 µm- 0.065 µm

Core i7


0.045 µm- 0.032 µm



0.80 µm- 0.25 µm

Summary: From BIG to small

Process size = Minimum length of a transistor

Wave length of visible light = 350nm (violet) to 780nm (red)

Process size now smaller than wavelength of violet light!

Computer Organisation

Summary from s l o w to fast



1.8 MIPS*

Core i7


120 GFLOPS #




Pentium 4



Summary: From S-L-O-W to fast

FLOPS = FLoating-point Operation Per Second

Computer Organisation

Summary the age of computer
Summary: The Age of Computer

  • Unprecedented progress since late 1940s

  • Performance doubling ~2 years (1971-2005):

    • Total of 36,000X improvement!

    • If transportation industry matched this improvement, we could have traveled from Singapore to Shanghai, China in about a second for roughly a few cents!

  • Incredible amount of innovations to revolutionize the computing industry again and again

Computer Organisation

Moore s law
Moore’s Law

  • Intel co-founder Gordon Moore "predicted" in 1965 that Transistor density will double every 18 months

Computer Organisation

Processor performance increase

Computer Organisation

The three walls
The Three Walls

  • Three major reasons for the unsustainable growth in uniprocessor performance

  • The Memory Wall:

    • Increasing gap between CPU and Main memory speed

  • The ILP Wall:

    • Decreasing amount of "work" (instruction level parallelism) for processor

  • The Power Wall:

    • Increasing power consumption of processor

Computer Organisation

The power wall
The Power Wall

  • We can now cramp more transistor into a chip than the ability (power) to turn them on!

Computer Organisation

Current state of computer
Current State of Computer

  • Multicore is the future

    • All PC chip manufacturers have abandoned unicore development

    • Expect to have more cores in a single chip

    • Parallel programming is more important than ever

  • Great opportunity for computing professional

    • New programming model is required

    • Parallelising existing software

    • Innovative ways to tap into the computing power

Computer Organisation

2 nd part of cs2100

So, what do we get to learn?

2nd Part of CS2100

Computer Organisation

Computer organization vs architecture
Computer Organization vs Architecture

  • Computer Organization:

    • Electronic Engineer's view of a computer system

  • Computer Architecture:

    • Assembly Programmers' view of a computer system

      • High level abstract view

  • This course aims to:

    • Give an indepth understanding of the inner working of a computer system

    • Concentrate on conceptual understanding rather than hardware implementation

Computer Organisation

Von neumann architecture






Von Neumann Architecture

  • Proposed by John Von Neumann et al, 1945

  • Major components of a computer system:

    • Processor, Memory and Devices

    • Buses for transporting data between component

  • Stored-Memory Concept:

    • Data and program are stored in memory





Data Path

Computer Organisation

Components of computer
Components of Computer

Computer Organisation

Example inside your desktop
Example: Inside Your Desktop

Computer Organisation

Example inside your laptop
Example: Inside Your Laptop

Computer Organisation

How do we control the hardware
How do we "control" the hardware?

  • You write programs in high level programming languages, e.g., C/C++, Java:

  • Compiler translates this into assembly language statement:

  • Assemblertranslates this statement into machine language instructions that the processor can execute:

A + B

add A, B

  • 1000 1100 1010 0000

Computer Organisation

Isa interface between hw sw







Memory organization

I/O system

Datapath & Control

Digital Design

Circuit Design


ISA – Interface between HW & SW


Programming Languages,

Compilers,Operating Systems,

Software Engineering

Instruction Set Architecture






Computer Organisation

Instruction set architecture isa
Instruction Set Architecture (ISA)

  • Instruction Set Architecture (ISA)

    • A subpart of computer architecture that is related to programming, as seen by the programmer and compiler

  • ISA exposes the capabilities of the underlying processor as a set of well defined instructions

    • Serves as the interface between hardware and software

    • Serves as an abstraction which allow freedom in hardware implementations

Computer Organisation

Instruction set architecture examples
Instruction Set Architecture - Examples

  • Observe that each ISA has a family of chips i.e. multiple hardware implementations

Computer Organisation

Instruction set architecture issues
Instruction Set Architecture - Issues

  • ISA Design Issues:

    • Organization of programmable storage

    • Data types and data structures:

      • Encoding and representations

    • Instruction formats

    • Modes of addressing and accessing data items and instructions

    • Exceptional conditions

Computer Organisation

The life of a program

Program in

High-level language

(C, Pascal, etc)

Link multiple

machine-language programs

to one program

Compile program

into assembly language

Load program into

computer’s memory

Assemble program

to machine language

Execute program

The Life of a program

Computer Organisation

Code execution

  • Instruction Execution Cycle in the Processor:

Computer Organisation

Road map for 2 nd part tentative
Road Map for 2nd Part (Tentative)

  • Processor Performance (10)

  • Assembly language (11, 12, 13)

  • The Processor:

    • Datapath(14)

    • Control (15)

  • Pipelining (16)

  • Memory hierarchy:

    • Cache (17, 18)

  • Input/Output(19)

Computer Organisation

Reading assignment
Reading Assignment

  • Computer Abstractions and Technology

    • Read up COD sections 1.1 – 1.3.

Computer Organisation


Computer Organisation