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Integrated planning of sustainable electricity services based on small scale biomass gasification systems for Multi Functional Platforms in rural communities in Ghana Pol Arranz-Piera , Ishmael Edjekhumene , Clement Nartey , Lawrence Darkwah , Enrique Velo. 2. Contents.

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Integrated planning of sustainable electricity services based on small scale biomass gasification systems for Multi Functional Platforms in rural communities in Ghana

  • PolArranz-Piera, Ishmael Edjekhumene, Clement Nartey, Lawrence Darkwah, Enrique Velo
  • Motivation: Electricity access in SSA
  • The MFP initiative in Ghana
  • Strategicplanningprinciplesforsustainabledecentralised rural electrification
  • Progress of itsapplicationtosmallscalebiomass-to-electricitysystemsintroduction in MFP communities(started sept. 2011)
  • Nextsteps


analysis access to electricity
Analysis - Access toelectricity

Electricity access in the world – Regional aggregates (source: IEA 2009)

what is the multifunctional platform
What is the Multifunctional Platform?

MFP is a source of mechanical and electrical energy meant to replace significant quantities of human labour, especially that of women in rural areas in West Africa

Typically, an MFP consists of an energy source (mainly a diesel engine – 8-12hp) mounted on a chassis which powers a variety of end-use equipment such as grinding mills, de-huskers, de-hullers, oil press equipment, water pumps and battery chargers

UNDP financed a pilot MFP programme in several West African countries between 1994 and 2005


The Ghana MFP Pilot Project

  • Pilot project was started in 2005 and was expected to install 40 MFPs in as many communities in Brong-Ahafo and Northern Regions
  • Project implemented by KITE in collaboration with 3 other NGOs and Community Based Organisations – NewEnergy, WACSO and Send Foundation

The Ghana MFP Pilot Project

Enterprise-centred approach used, under concession

Project in Ghana offered the lowest subsidy in equipment cost 54% in group-owned and 65% for individuals

Initial financing model was 10% payment for equipment cost with the rest to be paid back in 5 years at a 10% interest rate in addition to constructing the building

32 MFP installed in 32 communities - average equipment cost per MFP @ US$5,522

basic configuration: a 10hp Lister engine, grinding mill, double screw press and cassava grater

5 MFPs had 10 kVA generators and static battery chargers mounted in addition to the basic configuration

Major drawback  impact of the fuel price hikes/shortages (diesel price @ filling station 1 USD/litre – Feb 2012)


Planning of DRE: lessonslearnt

  • Lack of integrated evaluation approaches in rural electrification planning hinders RET success (Silva and Nakata, 2009).
  • Previousprojects (COOPENER) pointedoutseveralneeds:
    • Define and optimise roles and responsibilities in thepublic sector
    • Improveintra- and inter- institutionalcommunication
    • Enableparticipatoryprocesses, promote local and privateinvolvementvia PPP
    • New approach, consideringdecentralisedschemes (for RUR & URB), withenhancedquality (standardisation of technologicalsolutions vs flexibilitytoadapttodemandprofiles )
  • Importance of doubleperspective of electricity as servicetocoverbasic AND productive uses (Brew-Hammond, 2009), (ARE, 2010)

Strategicplanningprinciples: Programme / Project

Key components in foranintegratedapproachto rural electrification:



Biomass-to-electricity SC


Biomass supply chain model for rural electrification  to provide a useful approach for biomass supply chains optimality and sustainability in rural communities.

Green supply chain (LCA concepts)

Mathematical formulation using multi-objective MILP techniques

(Pérez-Fortes, M., Arranz-Piera, P., Laínez, J.M., Velo, E. and Puigjaner, L. (2011) ''Optimallocation of gasification plants for electricityproduction in rural areas'' in Computer-Aided Chemical Engineering 29. pp. 1809-1813

technical component small scale gasification within a chcp concept
Technical component Small scale gasification within a CHCP concept

At a small scale if a biomass gasifier is combined with a gas engine installation, its global efficiency may improve from 20% to 80% using heat recovery options.


Technical – Technological component









Figura 1. Funciones principales de un sistema autónomo de provisión eléctrica

Register and inform

  • Criticalfactors in Reliability:
  • Qualityassurancethroughoutthesystem SC and operationallife
  • Realisticdemandassessment (avoidoversizing, forecasting)
  • Flexibilitytoadapttodemand modularity


technical component microgrids
Technical component - microgrids

technical component demand
Technicalcomponent - Demand

(*) Other studies in the Latin American context have shown that the majority of households (up to 70% of a community) would have a domestic electricity demand in the range of 8 to 20kWh per month, even with access to a 24h service scheme


Technical component – Demand in rural Ghana

average WTP 5-10 GHC

Demand assessment for GEDAP (World Bank) by KITE

December 2011



Technical component – Demandprojections

  • The diffusion of innovations according to Rogers (1962). With successive groups of consumers adopting the new technology (shown in blue), its market share (yellow) will eventually reach the saturation level

Demand assessment for GEDAP (World Bank) by KITE

December 2011



Institutional component key roles!

Built on IEC TS 62257-6 Recommendations for small renewable energy and hybrid systems for RE.


Financial component – valorisation of social impacts

  • Environmentalimpacts – LCA, CBA. Adoption at planninglevel?
  • Social impacts? Examplefrom (former) MIDEPLAN methodologies (Chile)


next steps
  • Finalise electricity demand assessment in MFPs
  • Select candidates for role fulfillment in each community
  • Negotiate PPA with GEC and concessionaire utilities (under new Renewable Energy Bill) + Service Mgt. model
  • Select sustainability indicators and Finalise feasibility studies for each MFP community
  • Prepare a step by step guide with specific reference formats, both at programme and project level
  • And, in parallel, implement a small scale biomass gasification microplant in TEC-KNUST laboratory


Project: Energy Access for the Poor in sub-Saharan Africa to meet the Millennium Development Goals“ENERGY FOR ALL 2030”

  • Partners: Practical Action (UK), EDUCON (Czech Republic) Stockholm Environment Institute (SWE), UPC (ESP)
thank you very much for your attention pol arranz piera pol arranz piera@upc edu

Thank you very muchfor your