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How we use energy • 1. residential and commercial sector • a. Incudes homes, apartments, office buildings, and shopping malls • b. Over half energy used in residential and office is for space heating. • c. Second highest use – space cooling • d. The comes lighting and water heating • 2. industrial- • a. Manufacturing plants, paper mills, oil refineries,ect • b. Largest energy consumers are maufacturers of chemicals, rubber, and plastics as well as oil refineries
How we use energy • 3.Transportation- • a. cars, freight trucks, air transport, boat/ships, and trains • b. Almost entirely oil dependent • c. 97% of the energy is from petroleum • d. Light duty vehicles use 60% of fuels for transport
Historical energy use • 1. The first humans used solar • 2. Plants use photosynthesis to takes the sun’s energy and carbon dioxide and water to form carbohydrates. We use carbohydrates for energy • 3. Early humans used other plant parts like burning wood. • 4. Broadened their energy sources to wind and water to move and drive their machines. Even these are solar powered. • 5. Mid 1700 in Europe turned to other fuels for heat, cooking, and technology for making steel. • a. Wood was depleted turned to coal-beginning of fossil fuel age
Historical energy use • b. Up to 1850 in new world wood burning accounted for 90% of energy consumption • c. Wood was also used for industry and transport in the new world • 6. U.S. energy consumption in beginning of 20th century with the explosion of technology. • a. Needed a fuel source that was plentiful and had a high energy content. • b. Had to have more energy per volume then the fuel it was replacing.
Americas energy transition • 1. wood to fossil fuel transition occurred in late 1800’s • a. Deforestation near cities meant wood had to be transported in • b. Needed an energy source with more energy content. Coal has more then twice the energy content of wood. • c. By 1910 coal accounted for ¾ of all energy use. Railroad transport made coal a good source to use. • 2. Use of Petroleum products began to grow in the 1920’s- easier and cleaner to use then coal. • a. Cheaper transport by pipline • b. After wwII became age of petroleum fuels
America energy transition • 3. Petroleum fuel dominance may be coming to an end • a. 2006 petroleum products dropped to 60% of total energy. • b. Nuclear is growing slightly from 1-8 % and coal is showing a revival growing from 17-23 %
Fossil fuels • 1. oil- crude oil is consumed in large quantities- easily stored, transported, and used. • a. Crude oil is formed from the decay of organic matter such as plants and animals. • b. Most petroleum exists as two forms liquid as crude oil and vapor as natural gas. Solids exist as shale • c. Dead organisms get buried in the mud and shale and are compressed and are transformed over millions of years. • d. Forms in layers of sedimentary rock forming source beds. • e. Migrates into layers of porous and permeable layers. These reservoirs move until they hit impermeable rock where it continues to collect
Fossil Fuels • 2. Natural gas- • a. It used to be thought of as a waste that was burned off when drilling for oil • b. Much cleaner burning then crude oil or coal • 3. coal • a. 80% of coal is used for generating electricity • b. Has very large reserves • c. Coal has accumulated where ancient swamps and marshes in equatorial regions