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Natural Language Processing for the Web. Prof. Kathleen McKeown 722 CEPSR, 939-7118 Office Hours: Wed, 1-2; Tues 4-5 TA: Yves Petinot 719 CEPSR, 939-7116 Office Hours: Thurs 12-1, 8-9. Today.

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natural language processing for the web

Natural Language Processing for the Web

Prof. Kathleen McKeown

722 CEPSR, 939-7118

Office Hours: Wed, 1-2; Tues 4-5

TA:

Yves Petinot

719 CEPSR, 939-7116

Office Hours: Thurs 12-1, 8-9

today
Today
  • Next week: Invited Speaker SandaHarabagiu, Need 2 Discussants, location 414 CEPSR. This is not a class to miss!
    • Open Domain Question Answering (Lauren)
    • Natural language based reformulation resource and web exploitation for question answering (Kathy)
    • Improving QA Accuracy by Question Inversion (Vikas)
    • A Classification Approach to QA in Discussion Boards (Kenny)
    • Discussants: William, Shrenik
when qa is difficult
When QA is difficult
  • When the answer string does not use the same words as the question string:
    • Who discovered America?
      • Columbus discovered America
      • Columbus Day celebrates the Italian Navigator who first landed in the New World on Oct. 12, 1942.
proposed solution
Proposed Solution
  • Paraphrase Templates
  • How did Mahatma Gandhi die?
    • Mahatma Gandhi died
    • Mahatma Gandhi died of
    • Mahatma Gandhi died from
    • Mahatma Gandhi’s death from
    • Mahatma Gandhi drowned
    • Mahatma Gandhi suffocated
    • Mahatma Gandhi froze to death
    • killed Mahatma Gandhi
    • assassinated Mahatma Gandhi
    • Mahatma Gandhi was killed
slide5
Use
  • In IR to find documents more likely to contain answer
  • To rank sentences within documents that are returned by IR
reformulations
Reformulations
  • Hand-built or manual generalizations of automatically produced paraphrases
  • Specify type of relation to original
  • Number of reformulations: 1-30, ave: 3.24
other reformulation types
Other Reformulation Types
  • Lexical:
    • Buy/sell: John sold the laptop to Mary = Mary bought the laptop from John
  • Syntactic:
    • How deep is Crater Lake?
    • Crater Lake has a depth of
  • Inference
  • Reformulation Chains
    • Where did Bill Gates go to college?
    • Bill Gates was a student at ?
    • Bill Gates dropped out of ?
    • Bill Gates was a dropout?
    • Text: Bill Gates was a Harvard dropout.
but their web ir system
But…. Their Web IR System
  • Preserve quoted terms and quote the smallest NPs:
      • “What is the longest river in the United States?” -> “longest river” and “United States”
  • Expand the query using Wordnet Synonyms
      • “What is the length of the border between Ukraine and Russia?” -> (“length” or “distance”) and (“border” or “surround”) and (“Ukraine” or “Ukrainia”) and (“Russia” or “Soviet Union”) and (“between” or “betwixt”)
  • Using Contexrefomulations, add quoted reformulations of the question’s declarative form
    • “What is an atom?” -> “is an atom”, “an atom is” “an atom is one of”
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