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Types of Movement. strength - greatest amount of force muscle can produce in single effort power - rate of force generated endurance - ability to perform repeated submaximal contractions flexion and extension abduction and adduction rotation. Types of Contraction.

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types of movement
Types of Movement
  • strength - greatest amount of force muscle can produce in single effort
  • power - rate of force generated
  • endurance - ability to perform repeated submaximal contractions
  • flexion and extension
  • abduction and adduction
  • rotation
types of contraction
Types of Contraction
  • isometric tension causes no change in length
    • fibers shorten internally
      • countered by antagonist
    • ex: cutting horse poised
  • concentric
    • muscle shortens as it generates tension
    • ex: flexor or extensor
slide3
eccentric
    • muscle lengthens as it generates tension
    • used to resist force
    • ex: flexor to control extensor and stabilize joint
  • muscles develop greatest tension with eccentric contraction
    • more soreness
      • downhill work
      • drop fences
      • collected frame
recruitment of muscles
Recruitment of Muscles
  • affected by gait, speed, and duration of exercise
    • change gait
      • use different muscles
    • change speed
      • recruit more fibers for increases force
  • controlled by nervous system
    • fibers vary in their sensitivity to impulse
slide5
walk
    • mostly ST fibers
    • only 10% of total fibers needed
  • trot
    • ST and FOG
    • trot about 30 - 50 % fibers recruited
  • canter
    • more FG fibers recruited
  • gallop (full out)
    • 100 % fibers recruited
effects of conditioning
Effects of Conditioning
  • changes structure and chemical composition of fiber
  • twitch type does not change ( ST vs. FT )
  • hypertrophy - muscle growth
    • increases size and weight
      • unfit - 42% of BW
      • fit 50 % BW
    • chemical effects
      • increase enzyme levels
      • increase amount of energy substrate stored
  • affects vary with intensity, duration, and frequency of regular exercise
slide8
endurance training
    • increase aerobic capacity
      • increase in aerobic enzyme activity
        • shift in preference of substrate use (fats)
      • increase number of oxidative fibers (FG to FOG)
        • rapid increase - first 2 months of training
      • increase volume density of mitochondria
      • increase capillary density
    • decrease speed and power
      • decrease fiber diameter
        • slow adaptation - several months
        • more efficient use of ATP with O2
          • increase speed at which VLa4 occurs
slide9
sprint training (anaerobic)
    • increase power
      • increase diameter of glycolytic fibers
        • maximum force generated is proportional to cross sectional area
        • increase number actin and myosin myofibrils
        • increase amount of connective tissue
    • decrease aerobic capacity
      • decrease number capillaries for fiber area
    • improve buffering capacity in muscle fiber
      • delay decrease of pH