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Muscular System Types of Joint Movement . SHMD 249 16/5/2012. Pg 9-11. Joints & Movement. Neck Pivot joint. Movement Rotation : Limb moves in a circular movement towards the middle of the body. Flexion : Occurs when the angle of a joint decreases.

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joints movement

Pg 9-11

Joints & Movement
  • Neck
    • Pivot joint.
  • Movement
    • Rotation: Limb moves in a circular movement towards the middle of the body.
    • Flexion: Occurs when the angle of a joint decreases.
    • Extension: Occurs the angle of a joint increases.
    • Lateral flexion & extension.
slide3

Shoulder

    • Ball & Socket joint.
  • Movement
    • Circumduction:limb moves in a circle.
    • Rotation.
    • Abduction: Movement away from the midline of the body.
    • Adduction: Movement towards the midline of the body.
    • Horizontal adduction & abduction.
    • Flexion.
    • Extension.
    • Hyperextension: exaggerated extension motion.
slide4

Elbow

    • Hinge joint.
  • Movement
    • Flexion.
    • Extension.
slide5

Wrist

    • Condyloid joint.
  • Movement
    • Flexion.
    • Extension.
    • Adduction.
    • Abduction.
    • Circumduction.
    • Pronation: when the hand moves from an upward facing position to a downward facing position.
    • Supination: when the hand moves from a downward facing position to an upward facing position.
slide6

Hip

    • Ball & Socket joint.
  • Movement
    • Circumduction.
    • Rotation.
    • Flexion.
    • Extension.
    • Adduction.
    • Abduction.
slide7

Knee

    • Hinge joint.
  • Movement
    • Flexion.
    • Extension.
slide8

Ankle

    • Synovial hinge joint.
  • Movement (Specific to ankle joint)
    • Plantarflexion: Foot moves away from the shin bone, and your toes will be pointing downward.
    • Dorsiflexion: foot moves toward the shin bone as if you are pulling your toes up.
    • Occurs at gliding joint between tarsals:
    • Inversion: Soles of the feet are facing each other.
    • Eversion: Soles of the feet are facing away from each other.
slide9

Anterior Muscles

Trapezius

Deltoid

Pectoralis Major

Biceps

Serratus Anterior

Rectus Abdominus

Abdominal Obliques

Rectus Femoris

Sartorius

VastusLateralis

VastusMedialis

Gastrocnemius

Tibialis Anterior

Soleus

slide10

Posterior Muscles

Trapezius

Rhomboids

Deltoids

Triceps

Latissimus Dorsi

External Oblique

Gluteus Maximus

Biceps Femoris

Gluteus Medius

Semitensinosus

Semimembranosus

Gastrocnemius

Soleus

Achilles Tendon

major muscles of the body

Pg 13-14

Major Muscles of the body
  • Agonist/prime mover: this muscle contracts to produce the desired movement.
  • Antagonist: this muscle relaxes to allow the agonist to contract.
  • Example:
    • Bicep & tricep.
types of muscle movement
Types of Muscle Movement
  • Concentric contraction:
    • Involves the muscle shortening & developing tension.
    • Origin & insertion of muscle move closer together, i.e. muscle becomes ‘fatter’.
    • Movement occurs against gravity.
  • Example: Walking uphill.
types of muscle movement1
Types of Muscle Movement
  • Eccentric contraction:
    • Muscle lengthening to develop tension.
    • Origin & insertion of muscle move away from each other.
    • Provides control of movement on downward phase, & works to resist force of gravity.
  • Example: Walking downhill.
types of muscle movement2
Types of Muscle Movement
  • Isometric contraction:
    • Muscle produces tension, but stays the same length.
    • Occurs when body is fixed in one position.
  • Example:
tendons ligaments
Tendons & Ligaments
  • Tendons:
    • Connects muscle to bone.
    • Carry force of muscle contraction to the bone.
  • Ligaments:
    • Connects bone to bone.
    • Act to give stability to joints.
  • Soft tissue.
  • Tough & inelastic.
  • White/greyish in colour.
    • Very poor blood supply.
    • Take long to repair itself if damaged.
definitions
Definitions
  • Cartilage: Tough, fibrous connective tissue without nerves or blood supply that provides protection and support to joints, tubes, ends of long bones, and facial structures (e.g., ears and nose).
definitions1
Definitions
  • Bursa:small sacs of fluid that are located between bone & other moving structures i.e. muscles, skin, tendons. Bursa allows smooth gliding between structures, without friction.
revision questions
Revision Questions
  • For the following joints, you need to know the type of joint it is, as well as the type of movements each joint can perform: neck (6), shoulder (8), elbow (3), wrist (8), hip (7), knee (3), ankle (5).
  • Define the following movements: rotation (2), flexion (1), extension (1), circumduction (1), abduction (2), adduction (2), hyperextension (1), pronation (3), supination (3), plantar flexion (3), dorsi flexion (3), inversion (2), eversion (2).
  • Know the anterior and posterior muscles of the body – be able to label a diagram.
  • Differentiate between the ‘agonist’ and ‘antagonist’ muscles. 4
  • Tabulate the differences between the three types of muscle movement. 14
  • Differentiate between tendons & ligaments. 7
  • Why do ligaments and tendons take a long time to repair themselves? 2
  • Define:
    • Cartilage. 4
    • Bursa. 3