Technical Rescue Awareness Program. I like to call this TRAP training It is designed with all Firefighters in the State of Illinois in mind. Course Effective Date 01January 2001. This course will replace, Confined space / Trench Awareness 01/2002
I like to call this TRAP training
It is designed with all Firefighters in the State of Illinois in mind.
You will need to know all of these.
This Technical Rescue Awareness course has been developed by fellow firefighters within the State of Illinois in conjunction with the Office of the State Fire Marshals Office. The members of the steering committee followed the guidelines of the OSFM and NFPA 1670.
This course is meant to provide you a means in which to identify and properly react to uncommon, dangerous and difficult rescue situations. Further training is required for actual rescue operations and practices.
EMS cannot be taught at this level due to the vast number of systems within the State of Illinois, the lack of uniform policies and procedures / guidelines with the separate regions in Illinois, and the training requirements as established by the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH).
This course will cover basic and general knowledge on the following topic areas:Structural Collapse. - Various types of building collapses.Rope Rescue - Various rescue situations require rope work.Confined Space - Rescues in confined spaces, Vats, Sewers, silos, etc.Vehicle and Machinery - Roadway extrication and Industrial rescue/ extrication.Water. - Ice, surf, dive and swift water.Wilderness Search and Rescue - Search patterns and situation analysis.Trench and Excavation.
Certified Firefighter II.
100% attendance of the 8 hours awareness course.
Passing the state written exam by 70%.
The AHJ has complete and total control over all resources requested.
Given this, they also have the authority to stop any rescue attempts if warranted.
2. Operations – This is a basic technical response. Individuals at this level of training are able to deal with most non-complex situations.
3. Technician – Individuals at this level are considered expert in the specific field. They are trained to deal with complex and difficult incidents.
Personnel accountability system (PAS)- The AHJ must be accountable for all members operating at an incident.
Evacuation Procedures/guidelines. - Every member operating at the incident must know these procedures / guidelines. Each sector must know what its’ action will be in the event an evacuation order is given.
Personnel Protective Equipment - Each AHJ is responsible for determining personnel protective equipment.
The need for continuous size up must never be over looked. Every technical rescue, no matter what magnitude, can change in a given second. The initial assessment and hazard analysis will set the groundwork for the entire incident.
1. Size-Up, Scope, magnitude, and nature of the incident. 2. Location and number of victims. 3. Risk / Benefit analysis. – Will the end result justify the means? 4. Pre-plans - will address more then one way to get to the area. 5. Environmental Factors. – Loss of life can be expected to rise in time of extreme heat and cold.
6. Patient Contact. – Your safety is paramount. Can you see or hear the patients? Hailing, tags lines, radios, and con-space systems can be used. Does the victim know you are there?
Availability / necessary resources. – What resources do you have available?Incident Management System / Incident Command System. – In order to manage the incident, command and control must be established.
For the technical rescue incident the following sectors are a minimum that must be established.
1. Command – Responsible for the entire incident.
2. Safety – Safety sector should be trained to the level of the incident.
3. Rescue – The rescue sector is responsible for establishing a rescue plan, informing all sectors of the plan, and insuring the plan is carried out.
4. Optional sectors – Logistics, Public Information, Staging, Rehab, Suppression, EMS, and numerous others as outline in NFPA1561, Standard in Fire Department Incident Management.
Control Zones – These zones will replicate the Hot, Warm and Cold zones established during a hazardous materials incident.
Witness interviews – Who, what, where, why, when must be solicited from all individuals in the area.
Patient Contact – Control who talks to the victim and what the victim hears.
Bystander Interaction – Establishing control zones will keep all non - essential personnel out of harms way
Police Assistance –
The Police departments are an extremely valuable resource at your disposal.
Machinery / Vehicles – With machinery, find someone with expertise. What are the actions of a “full cycle machine”? Use of apparatus to block traffic, not personnel.
Have their emergency contact numbers available on all apparatus.
Awareness level functions that occur at a Structural Collapse Incident1. Size up 2. Triage Criteria
1. Earthquakes2. Wind3. Floods4. Snow and Rain5. Construction Problems6. Explosions7. Structural Decay8. Fire9. Transportation Accidents
1. Initial Spontaneous response
2. Planned Community response
3. Void Space rescue
4. Technical, Urban Search and Rescue
1. Operation level responsea. Light Frame ordinary constructionb. Un-reinforced and reinforced masonry
a. Concrete tilt up
b. Reinforced concrete
Secondary collapse1. Chalk2. Spray3. Mechanical devices
External equipment that may be used to locate trapped victims1. Visual2. Verbal and / or Audible
Rope rescue is the providing of aid to those in danger of injury or death in an environment where the use of rope and related equipment is necessary to perform the rescue safely and successfully.
Falls and Other hazards
A. Trip hazards
Uneven or wet ground
c. Entanglement or
pinching hazards ( i.e. hands caught in rope equipment)
d. Falling objects (i.e. equipment, rocks, building components)
f. Atmospheric hazards
h. Untrained responders (misuse and abuse of equipment)
i. Hostile by-standers / victims
j. Hazards specific to the location of the rescue.
It is the responsibility of the AHJ to pre-plan your response area to identify the location and hazards of potential rope rescue incidents and prepare for them through training and response procedures / guidelines.
It has been said that the first 5 minutes of an operation determines the next 5 hours. That can never be understated in rope rescue. First-due companies, even though not considered “rescuers”, have many very important tasks to ensure to overall success of the entire operation.
Size-up must be a continuous process.a. Scope, magnitude, and nature of the incidentb. Location of the incident.c. Risk versus benefit analysis (rescue vs. recovery)d. Access to the scene.e. Environmental factorsf. Available / necessary resources.g. Ability to contact victim(s) can this be done without endangering rescuers and victim(s)
a. This area will include an area within 300 ft. (or more, per incident command)
b. Make the area safe for rescuers
Control / limit traffic and sources of vibration in the area, this may include shutting down vehicles and equipment.
Control / limit access to the area by unnecessary personnel.
Identify all other hazards and remove or reduce their impact.
These teams should be identified by AHJ or department SOP / SOG.
A. Permit Required Confined Space Law1. OSHA law is 29CFR 1910.1462. IDOL (Illinois Department of Labor) has adopted this law3. Law identifies two types of spaces
i) A confined space that contains one of the followinga) Contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere (Any atmosphere that is oxygen deficient, contains a toxic or disease-producing contaminant, or is potentially explosive. A hazardous atmosphere could be immediately dangerous to life and health)
b) Contains a substance that could engulf the entrantc) Contains inwardly converging walls/floors that could trap an entrant causing asphyxiationd) Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard
E. Initial tasks of first in companies1. Size-up: as discussed in general awarenessa. Determine best access to the spaceb. Make contact with patients if safe to do soc. Attempt to determine the number of victims
2. Secure general area around spaceMake general area safe by the following:i) Control/limit traffic and sources of vibration including shutting down all vehicles and equipmentii) Control/limit access to general area by unnecessary personnel
i) Monitor space for atmosphere
ii) Ventilate space to alleviate atmospheric problems including heat/cold or other severe environmental hazards
iii) Retrieve victim by non-entry rescue/pre-rigged devices
Identify the size up that must occur at an accident.1. Environmental conditions are controlled by the weather.a. Extreme heat and cold
b. Rain, sleet and snow darkness
e. Crowd Control
f. Hydraulic bumpers
g. Survey of Scene
2. Fuel systemsa. Gasoline systemb. Diesel systemc. Compressed natural or liquefied petroleum gas systemd. Electrical system1) Electrical cars are not common but maybe seen in industrial areas. The largest concern for electrical cars is the presence of batteries and acid.
3. Hydraulic Shocks
a. absorbing bumpers
b. hatch back
c. hood pistons
d. hydraulic suspension
Batteries and their locationsa. Under the hood (high)b. Under the hood (low/hidden)c. Under the back seatd. In the trunke. Wheel wells
1. Scene protection-safety of rescuer is first priority 2. Initial access into a vehicle or machinery 3. Initial stabilization
1. Traffic needs to be controlled for the safety of the rescue personnel.Crowds could restrict the rescuers’ activities at the scene2. Machine can be controlled in two ways:
CAUTION: Beware of stored potential energy or full cycle machinery.
EXAMPLE: Machinery that continues to move after power is removed.
A. Fire service need for Water Rescue Awareness:1. Most jurisdictions have some type of body of water.
2. Most jurisdictions have the potential for flooding.
3. Many water related incidents require expertise beyond the normal capability of some fire departments.
a. Fire service personnel are action oriented. They want to act now.
b. Rescues are attempted without the proper training or equipment.
a. Extreme temperaturesi) Cold temperatures causing hypothermia, frostbite, and equipment malfunctions.
ii) Hot temperatures causing hyperthermia and overheating in personal protective gear. Under water survival time is lost in hot temperatures.
Hypothermia is accelerated when personnel are wet or in the water.
Body heat is lost to still water 25 times as fast as to still air of the same temperature.
i) Animal life, fish, insect
ii) Plant life, seaweed
iii) Biohazards, bacterial, viral
a. Utilities including electrical, gas, sanitary, and communications.
b. Hazardous materials.
c. Personal hazards including trips, falls, steep and slippery terrain, drop offs, holes, hidden obstructions that may cause injury or entanglement.
a. Baro-trauma including decompression sickness, nitrogen narcosis, oxygen toxicity, embolism, etc.
b. Drowning. May be related to lost diver, loss of air, anxiety reactions.
c. Fatigue, exhaustion, heat stress, dehydration, or hypothermia.
d. Pre-existing medical conditions, smoking, or use of medications.
a. Cold injuries including frostbite and hypothermia.
b. Thin ice causing sudden emersion or entrapment under the ice.
a. Breaking waves generating extreme forces.
b. Undertows, tides, and currents.
a. Awesome, relentless power of moving water.
b. Strainers and debris.
i) Above the water surface.
ii) Below the water surface. (Upstream V’s and downstream V’s).
e. Current patterns.i) Laminar flow.
ii) Helical flow (upwelling).
iii) Eddies (back current).
a. Illusion (cannot be perceived from upstream and do not look particularly dangerous).
b. Hydraulic (vertical whirlpool)
c. Aeration in the hydraulic (causes cavitation to boat propellers).
1. Age of the victim.
2. Temperature of the water.a. Below 70 degrees F.b. The patient could be below the thermocline.
3. Length of submersion (under 90 minutes still in rescue mode).
4. Quality BLS and ALS patient treatment.
1. Assessment phase (size-up)a. Scope, magnitude, and type of water rescue incident.b. Environmental factors and potential for changing conditions.i) Change in weather conditions.ii) Loss of daylight.iii) Water levels and current changing drastically (flash flooding).
a. Gain control of the scene (establish site security).
b. Establish an Incident Command System.
c. Accountability and safety of personnel (This starts with proper training and equipment).
d. Evaluate the patient’s condition (they may or may not be able to assist in their own rescue).
e. Evaluate the resources available and those that will be needed.
i) Try to keep witnesses at the scene.
ii) Interview witnesses separately.
iii) Collect the witness’ personal information (they might need to be interviewed again).
i) Triangulate with more than one witness.
ii) Use of reference object (same size as person, vehicle, or plane that went down).
iii) A hole in the ice is an excellent last seen point. Don’t destroy it.
i) Notes, clothes, and footprints.
ii) Tire tracks, debris, oil slick, and bubbles.
1. The AHJ should have an emergency response system established for water related incidents. This may include the response of:
a. Operations and technician level trained personnel (divers, ice divers, swift water technicians, etc.).
b. Police and evidence technicians.
c. Specialized equipment (boats, tow trucks, extrication equipment, etc.)
a. Victims at the surface may slip under the water before a surface rescue can be executed.
b. Divers can only last so long before they need rehab. Keep the incident operating in rescue mode.
A. IntroductionIn 1956, the National Search and Rescue Plan was published. This plan established the United States Air Force as the executive agent for inland search and rescue, covering the continental United States, less the major navigable waterways.
1. Locate the victim
2. Reach the victim
3. Stabilize the victim
4. Evacuate the victim
1. Pre-planning - The Organization and Management Guidelines. Includes call-out procedures / guidelines and equipment .2. Notification - We have to be notified of a problem before we can handle it. 3. Planning and Strategy - The process of gathering information so that an assessment can be done. 4. Tactics - Type of response or solution to handle the problem.
5. Operations - The field phase where the tactical solutions are carried out.
6. Suspension - Operation is discontinued.
7. Critique - Evaluation of the participants, methods and strategies.
1. Search dogs-cover more area in a shorter period of time than humans2. Trackers3. Aircraft4. Ground air search specialist5. Rope rescue specialists6. Water rescue specialists7. Trench rescue specialist 8. Collapse building search
Subject Experience Profile
Terrain and Hazards Profile
History of Incidents in this area
1. Emergency Response
2. Measured Response
3. Evaluative Response
Best on information, convinced death or serious injury could occur if help does not arrive.Blitz or Hasty Team - minimum number of experienced rescuers that sent out to locate the victim.
This is followed by a support team with additional equipment. The margin of safety is fairly narrow and a perceptible amount of risk involved in the necessaryresponse.
based on when appropriate information on hand is insufficient to dictate the exact outline of a search and rescue action plan.
Occurs when the reported problem is unconfirmed or seems likely to resolve itself.
1. This goal of interviewing and obtaining information from participant(s) or witnesses is to devise an effective course of action.2. Each person lost receives a file.
a. Part I - Is information that is critical in determiningdecisions of the initiation phases of a search.
b. Part II - May be significant later in the mission.
1. Personal Hazards include blisters, scrapes, scratches, falls, blows, bruises, dehydration, and so forth.
2. Environmental Hazards include insect bites and stings, poisonous plants, exposure injuries, snow-blindness, altitude illness,lightning, sunburn, dangerous wildlife, and so forth.
3. Terrain Hazards include cliffs, avalanches, standing water (e.g., ponds, lakes), flat ice (e.g., ponds, lakes), moving water, caves, mines, wells, high winds, snow, coastal white water surf, and so forth.
1. The Theoretical Method. The probable search area is generated in this method by using tables that express the area as a function of distance traveled by the lost subject. This necessitates a reliable determination of the Point Last Seen (PLS). The area's boundary is a circle drawn on the map centered on the PLS. The length of its radius is the maximum distance the victim could have journeyed in that terrain in the time elapsed since he was last seen.
Case studies of people in the wilderness provide the data for this method.
Historical data, intuition , the location of the natural barriers and clues, and consideration of the physical and mental limitations of the victim are taken into account.
Balances subjective and objective information and uses individual personnel to view their probable search area independently, then combining their percentage of where he/she thinks they are to the rest of the group. The total percentage from all personnel involved is added and the greatest percent is where the search will be started.
1. Type I (Detection Phase) - Hasty Teams
2. Type II - Open Grid is relatively fast, efficient search of locales of high probability using methods that produce the highest results per hour using search dogs, wide search patterns flow by aircraft, and open grid sweep searches This is three to seven searchers widely spaced at approx.. 300-600 feet.
3. Type III - Close Grid is compromised of approx.. thirty searchers walking in a line approx.. 15 to 20 feet apart. May be less for evidence recovery.
1. Establish Incident Management System
2. Evaluate Search Urgency
3. Obtain Lost Persons Report
4. Determine Type of Response
5. Determine Available Resources
6. Determine Probable Search Area
Very Young 1 Very Old 1 Other 2-3
Known or suspected injured or ill 1-2 Healthy 3 Known Fatality 3
One Alone 1 More than one (unless separation suspected) 2-3
Existing hazardous weather 1 Predicted hazardous weather (<8 hours) 1-2 Predicted hazardous weather (>8 hours) 2 No Hazardous weather predicted 3
Inadequate for the environment 1 Questionable for the environment 1-2 Adequate for the environment 3
Not Experienced, does not know area 1 Not experienced, knows area 1-2
Experienced, not familiar with the area 2 Experienced, knows the area 3
Known hazardous terrain or other hazards 1 Few or no hazards 2-3 History of Incidents in this Area 1-3
Bastard Search 2-3 SUM
Factor Sum Response 8-12 Emergency Response 13-18 Measure Response 19-24 Evaluated Response 25-27 Search Situation or Missing Person
NOTE: File separate report for each person. Detailed answers are needed to identify clues when found in the field.
Place “none”, “NA”, or “unsure” in blanks as appropriate.
Information critical to immediate decisions and the initiation phases of a search. Record all of Part I information at the time of first notice of a lost or overdue person.Incident Number: Date: Time: Report Taken By: Name of Missing Person: Hours Overdue Local Address Home Address: Nicknames:
Age: DOB: Race: Color: Height: Weight: Build: Hair Color: Hair Length: Sideburns: Facial Hair: Straight/Curly/Wavy Balding: Eye Color: Facial Features Shape: Complexion: Any distinguishing marks, scars, tattoos: General Appearance:
Shirt, Sweater Style Color Coat Style Color Rain Gear Style Color Pants Style Color Gloves Style Color Glasses Style Color Shoes Style Color Other Clothing
Pack Style Brand Color
Tent Style Brand Color
Sleeping Bag Style Brand Color
Food What Brands Amount
Water Canteen Style Amount
Flashlight Matches Knife Map
Firearms Type Brand Ammo.
Snow Shoes Type Brand Binding Type
Ice Axe Brand Cover
Skis Brand Length Color
Going to Via Purpose How Long How many in group Group Affiliation Transportation Started at When Car located at Type of Car License Verified Alternate car at Type of Car License Verified Pick up/Return Time Where
When Where By whom Present If not present, location Phone Going which way How long ago Special reason for leaving Unusual comments before leaving How long overdue
Home address Phone Anyone home Friend Home Address Phone Friend Home Address Phone
General Condition Physical Handicaps Medical Problems Psychological problems Any known external factors that could affect subjects behavior.
Consequences without medication Eyesight without glasses
By (Friends, Family) Actions Taken When
Information that may be significant later in the incident. Can be obtained after initial actions are taken and further information on the subject is necessary.
Smoke How often Brand Drink Brand Drugs Type Hobbies, interest Work Outgoing or quiet Evidence of leadership Religion Serious Feeling towards adults What does the person value most
Who is person closest to in the family Status in school/work Any recent letters Give up easy or keep going Where was person born and raised Any trouble with the law
Afraid of what animals Afraid of Dark What training regarding to do when lost What are persons actions when hurt Talks to strangers; accepts rides Active type or lethargic
Any person clashes in the group
Any strong leaders
What is the competitive spirit of the group
What would actions be if separated
Any persons especially close
What is the experience of the leader and rest of group
(To Prevent Media/Press Complications)Father’s Occupation Parents separated/Divorced Families desire to employ special assistance Name, relationship, address, phone of contact relative if in good condition:
Name, relationship, address, phone of contact relative if in poor condition or dead.
A. A trench is an excavation that is deeper than it is wide and less then 15 feet wide. OSHA has published regulations dealing with trenches in 29 CFR Part 1926. This standard regulates the construction and occupation of trenches over 5 feet deep and shallower trenches with special hazards. Illinois Department of Labor (IDOL) has adopted 29 CFR 1926 as the state regulation.
OSHA requires that Escape routes, Air quality monitoring and other protective measures be utilized at all trench excavations.
Secondary collapses are by far the most lethal hazard in trench rescues. Studies have shown that trench walls often collapse in less than 1/10th of a second and as many as 65% of all deaths in trench cave-ins are of would-be rescuers. This is because virtually all of the hazards associated with trench rescues are hidden from the untrained rescuer. Also, trench rescues are not common occurrences.
Vibration is extremely destructive to trench stability. Vibration will speed-up the collapse of the walls, and will magnify any other factors, which are effecting he trench.
7. A single cubic foot of dirt can weigh as much as 145 lbs., and will average about 100 lbs. per square foot. A typical small cave-in involves about 1.5 cubic yards of dirt, or about 4,000 lbs.
1. OSHA provides three methods for protecting workers in trenches, sloping, shielding, and shoring. No worker is to enter a trench greater than 5 feet deep unless one of these protections is in place.
Sloping involves cutting back the sides of a trench to an angle at which the earth will no longer slide. The angle, which is sought, is referred to as the "angle of repose" and is merely the angle at which the soil will no longer slide.
1. The typical first-in company will not have trained trench rescue personnel on-board, much less the proper equipment to perform a rescue. Initial response personnel can still perform vital tasks, which will serve to speed-up the rescue, protect the victim, or eliminate the need for rescue or recovery operations.