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Technical Rescue Awareness Program. I like to call this TRAP training It is designed with all Firefighters in the State of Illinois in mind. Course Effective Date 01January 2001. This course will replace, Confined space / Trench Awareness 01/2002

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technical rescue awareness program

Technical Rescue Awareness Program

I like to call this TRAP training

It is designed with all Firefighters in the State of Illinois in mind.

course effective date 01january 2001
Course Effective Date 01January 2001
  • This course will replace, Confined space / Trench Awareness 01/2002
  • This course will replace Structural Collapse Awareness 01/2002
  • This course will be a prerequisite for all RESCUE COURSES 01/2002
  • Any questions?????????
a little about me
A Little about me
  • Robert Bush (BOB)
  • Full time Firefighter – Naperville Fire
  • Safety / TSO – Roselle Fire
  • Member of the Technical Rescue AD HOC Committee.
  • I have been in the fire service for 13 years
I am prior service “ARMY”
  • Certified in numerous areas within the state of Illinois, OSFM.
  • If you ever get a chance, please call Mitzi in Springfield. She spend many hour typing and correcting our mistakes for the past year
  • 815/###-####
1 1 definitions see objectives

1-1 Definitions(See Objectives)

(See Objectives)

You will need to know all of these.

start date 01 01 2001 2 1 general
Start Date 01/01/20012-1 General

This Technical Rescue Awareness course has been developed by fellow firefighters within the State of Illinois in conjunction with the Office of the State Fire Marshals Office. The members of the steering committee followed the guidelines of the OSFM and NFPA 1670.

technical rescue awareness program1
Technical Rescue Awareness Program

This course is meant to provide you a means in which to identify and properly react to uncommon, dangerous and difficult rescue situations. Further training is required for actual rescue operations and practices.

This course does not contain hands on training. The AHJ is responsible for training per NFPA 1670, Operations and Training for Technical Rescue Incidents. NFPA 1670 refers to Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Basic Life Support (BLS). It is the AHJ’s responsibility to properly instruct members in emergency medical care.
technical rescue awareness program2
Technical Rescue Awareness Program

EMS cannot be taught at this level due to the vast number of systems within the State of Illinois, the lack of uniform policies and procedures / guidelines with the separate regions in Illinois, and the training requirements as established by the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH).

technical rescue awareness
Technical Rescue Awareness

This course will cover basic and general knowledge on the following topic areas:Structural Collapse. - Various types of building collapses.Rope Rescue - Various rescue situations require rope work.Confined Space - Rescues in confined spaces, Vats, Sewers, silos, etc.Vehicle and Machinery - Roadway extrication and Industrial rescue/ extrication.Water. - Ice, surf, dive and swift water.Wilderness Search and Rescue - Search patterns and situation analysis.Trench and Excavation.

osfm requirements for certification
OSFM Requirements for certification:

Certified Firefighter II.

100% attendance of the 8 hours awareness course.

Passing the state written exam by 70%.

Each AHJ needs to have an action plan and policies in place to handle technical rescue incidents.

The AHJ has complete and total control over all resources requested.

Given this, they also have the authority to stop any rescue attempts if warranted.

A hazard analysis and risk assessment will provide the AHJ with the information needed to make an informed decision on the likelihood of an incident, where it might occur, and the effects on the community.
AHJ are required to establish written standard operating procedures/guidelines consistent with one of the following operational levels:
1. Awareness – Basic initial company response. Responders at this level have the basic information to identify the type of incident and start initial company operations.

2. Operations – This is a basic technical response. Individuals at this level of training are able to deal with most non-complex situations.

3. Technician – Individuals at this level are considered expert in the specific field. They are trained to deal with complex and difficult incidents.

F. Awareness level personnel are those who may be first on the scene through the course of regular job duties of a technical rescue incident. Generally, they are not considered “rescuers” as such. The AHJ should ensure these people know the hazards that are in their jurisdiction.
elements of safety at a technical rescue
Elements of safety at a technical rescue

Personnel accountability system (PAS)- The AHJ must be accountable for all members operating at an incident.

elements of safety at a technical rescue1
Elements of safety at a technical rescue

Evacuation Procedures/guidelines. - Every member operating at the incident must know these procedures / guidelines. Each sector must know what its’ action will be in the event an evacuation order is given.

elements of safety at a technical rescue2
Elements of safety at a technical rescue

Personnel Protective Equipment - Each AHJ is responsible for determining personnel protective equipment.

hazard and risk assessment size up
Hazard and Risk assessment (SIZE-UP).

The need for continuous size up must never be over looked. Every technical rescue, no matter what magnitude, can change in a given second. The initial assessment and hazard analysis will set the groundwork for the entire incident.

size up

1. Size-Up, Scope, magnitude, and nature of the incident. 2. Location and number of victims. 3. Risk / Benefit analysis. – Will the end result justify the means? 4. Pre-plans - will address more then one way to get to the area. 5. Environmental Factors. – Loss of life can be expected to rise in time of extreme heat and cold.

size up1

6. Patient Contact. – Your safety is paramount. Can you see or hear the patients? Hailing, tags lines, radios, and con-space systems can be used. Does the victim know you are there?


Availability / necessary resources. – What resources do you have available?Incident Management System / Incident Command System. – In order to manage the incident, command and control must be established.


For the technical rescue incident the following sectors are a minimum that must be established.




4.Optional sectors


1. Command – Responsible for the entire incident.

2. Safety – Safety sector should be trained to the level of the incident.


3. Rescue – The rescue sector is responsible for establishing a rescue plan, informing all sectors of the plan, and insuring the plan is carried out.


4. Optional sectors – Logistics, Public Information, Staging, Rehab, Suppression, EMS, and numerous others as outline in NFPA1561, Standard in Fire Department Incident Management.

scene control initial company operations
Scene control/Initial Company Operations

Control Zones – These zones will replicate the Hot, Warm and Cold zones established during a hazardous materials incident.

Witness interviews – Who, what, where, why, when must be solicited from all individuals in the area.

scene control

Patient Contact – Control who talks to the victim and what the victim hears.

Bystander Interaction – Establishing control zones will keep all non - essential personnel out of harms way

scene control1

Police Assistance –

The Police departments are an extremely valuable resource at your disposal.

scene control2

Machinery / Vehicles – With machinery, find someone with expertise. What are the actions of a “full cycle machine”? Use of apparatus to block traffic, not personnel.

scene control3

Utilities -

Have their emergency contact numbers available on all apparatus.

3 1 structural collapse
3-1 Structural Collapse

Awareness level functions that occur at a Structural Collapse Incident1. Size up 2. Triage Criteria

destructive forces that effect structures
Destructive Forces that effect structures

1. Earthquakes2. Wind3. Floods4. Snow and Rain5. Construction Problems6. Explosions7. Structural Decay8. Fire9. Transportation Accidents

various roles within the response system
Various roles within the Response System

1. Initial Spontaneous response

2. Planned Community response

3. Void Space rescue

4. Technical, Urban Search and Rescue

general hazards as they relate to
General hazards as they relate to:

1. Operation level responsea. Light Frame ordinary constructionb. Un-reinforced and reinforced masonry

2 technician level response
2. Technician level response

a. Concrete tilt up


b. Reinforced concrete

five major types of collapse and victim locations
Five major types of collapse and victim locations

1. Lean-to

2. V-shape

3. A-shape

4. Pancake

5. Cantilever


Secondary collapse1. Chalk2. Spray3. Mechanical devices


External equipment that may be used to locate trapped victims1. Visual2. Verbal and / or Audible

search markings
  • H. Identify and explain the procedures / guidelines for recognition and implementation of the Marking Systems1. Building Marking System2. Structure Marking System3. FEMA Task Force Search and Rescue Marking System
4 1 rope
4-1 Rope

Rope rescue is the providing of aid to those in danger of injury or death in an environment where the use of rope and related equipment is necessary to perform the rescue safely and successfully.

a types of rope rescues
A. Types of rope rescues
  • 1 .High angle rescue2. Slope evacuationB. Uses for rope rescueHigh angle rescue Slope evacuationConfined space rescueTrenchWater rescueWild land search and rescue
c hazards associated with rope rescue
C. Hazards associated with rope rescue.

Falls and Other hazards

A. Trip hazards

Uneven or wet ground

c. Entanglement or

pinching hazards ( i.e. hands caught in rope equipment)

hazards associated with rope rescue
Hazards associated with rope rescue

d. Falling objects (i.e. equipment, rocks, building components)

e. Utilities

f. Atmospheric hazards

g. Weather

hazards associated with rope rescue1
Hazards associated with rope rescue

h. Untrained responders (misuse and abuse of equipment)

i. Hostile by-standers / victims

j. Hazards specific to the location of the rescue.

general safety considerations for rope rescue
General Safety Considerations for Rope Rescue

It is the responsibility of the AHJ to pre-plan your response area to identify the location and hazards of potential rope rescue incidents and prepare for them through training and response procedures / guidelines.

d first due company operations
D. First-Due Company Operations

It has been said that the first 5 minutes of an operation determines the next 5 hours. That can never be understated in rope rescue. First-due companies, even though not considered “rescuers”, have many very important tasks to ensure to overall success of the entire operation.

1 size up
1. Size-up

Size-up must be a continuous process.a. Scope, magnitude, and nature of the incidentb. Location of the incident.c. Risk versus benefit analysis (rescue vs. recovery)d. Access to the scene.e. Environmental factorsf. Available / necessary resources.g. Ability to contact victim(s) can this be done without endangering rescuers and victim(s)

2 secure the general area
2. Secure the general area.

a. This area will include an area within 300 ft. (or more, per incident command)

b. Make the area safe for rescuers

Control / limit traffic and sources of vibration in the area, this may include shutting down vehicles and equipment.

Control / limit access to the area by unnecessary personnel.

Identify all other hazards and remove or reduce their impact.

notify a qualified rescue team to perform the rescue
Notify a qualified rescue team to perform the Rescue.

These teams should be identified by AHJ or department SOP / SOG.

5 1 confined space
5-1 Confined Space

A. Permit Required Confined Space Law1. OSHA law is 29CFR 1910.1462. IDOL (Illinois Department of Labor) has adopted this law3. Law identifies two types of spaces

confined space contains all of following non permit
Confined Space- contains all of following-(non-permit)
  • i) Large enough and so configured to bodily enter
  • ii) Limited or restricted means of entry and exit
  • iii) Not designed for continuous human occupancy
permit required confined space
Permit required confined space

i) A confined space that contains one of the followinga) Contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere (Any atmosphere that is oxygen deficient, contains a toxic or disease-producing contaminant, or is potentially explosive. A hazardous atmosphere could be immediately dangerous to life and health)

permit required confined space1
Permit required confined space

b) Contains a substance that could engulf the entrantc) Contains inwardly converging walls/floors that could trap an entrant causing asphyxiationd) Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard

confined space
Confined Space
  • ii) Additionally the law allows the use of “alternate entry procedures” with Permit Required Confined Spaces in which the “…only hazard posed by the permit space is an actual or potential hazardous atmosphere”…, when it can be demonstrated “that continuous forced air ventilation alone is sufficient to maintain that permit space is safe for entry”.
confined space1
Confined Space
  • B. OSHA statistics regarding confined space deaths1. Studies show 60-80% of deaths are would be rescuers2. Studies also show that up to 90% of deaths are from atmospheric problems
confined space2
Confined Space
  • C. Reasons for entering confined spaces
  • 1. Inspections/Maintenance
  • 2. Rescue
  • 3. Training
confined space3
Confined Space
  • D. General Hazards associated with confined space rescue operations1. Hazardous Atmospheres2. Falls3. Other Hazards- as determined by the AHJ4. Lack of specialized equipment and training to perform rescue safely, i.e. Trying to make entry through small openings by removing your SCBA from your back and pushing it ahead of you. If you can’t fit trough the opening with your SCBA on your back you need SABA (air-line).
confined space4
Confined Space

E. Initial tasks of first in companies1. Size-up: as discussed in general awarenessa. Determine best access to the spaceb. Make contact with patients if safe to do soc. Attempt to determine the number of victims

confined space5
Confined Space

2. Secure general area around spaceMake general area safe by the following:i) Control/limit traffic and sources of vibration including shutting down all vehicles and equipmentii) Control/limit access to general area by unnecessary personnel

confined space6
Confined Space
  • Identify hazards and remove/reduce their impact.i) Lock out/Tag out per 29 CFR 1910.147Notify qualified rescue team to perform rescue. These teams should be identified by AHJ or department SOP/SOG
confined space7
Confined Space
  • i) Don’t get pushed into someone else’s emergency. The law requires the owner of the permit required confined space to provide for a rescue team prior to any entry, this does not mean that we by virtue of being the Fire Department are obligated to provide this service. The owner of the space if he wants to utilize the Fire Department as his rescue team, must have an agreement with that Fire Department, that they will provide this specialized service.
initial rescue actions
Initial rescue actions

i) Monitor space for atmosphere

ii) Ventilate space to alleviate atmospheric problems including heat/cold or other severe environmental hazards

iii) Retrieve victim by non-entry rescue/pre-rigged devices

6 1 vehicle and machinery
6-1 Vehicle and Machinery

Identify the size up that must occur at an accident.1. Environmental conditions are controlled by the weather.a. Extreme heat and cold

b. Rain, sleet and snow darkness

vehicle and machinery
Vehicle and Machinery
  • 2 Patient injuries - look for the mechanism of injury which can produce trauma to:a. Head, face, hand and arm injuries from windshield, air bag, steering wheel, A and B post, rear view mirror, roof, etc.
  • b. Chest, stomach and hip injuries from the steering wheel, air bag, door, seat belts, etc..
  • c. Leg and foot injuries from steering wheel, dash board, door, etc.
vehicle and machinery1
Vehicle and Machinery
  • 3. Scene conditions can have a wide range of problems:a. Vehicle stability
  • b. Hazardous materials
  • c. Electrical problems
    • i) vehicle
    • ii) utilities
    • iii) machinery power
vehicle and machinery2
Vehicle and Machinery

d. Fire

e. Crowd Control

f. Hydraulic bumpers

g. Survey of Scene

vehicle and machinery3
Vehicle and Machinery
  • B. Identify and notify the resources necessary to conduct a safe and effective operations.1. Police – maintain a. crowd controlb. traffic controlc. preserve scene for i) accident reconstructionii) investigation
vehicle and machinery4
Vehicle and Machinery
  • 2. Fire department should:a. Maintain scene safetyi) Extinguishing firesii) Preventing firesiii) Handling spills or leaksb. Maintain vehicle safetyi) Check fuel systemii) Check the electrical system
vehicle and machinery5
Vehicle and Machinery
  • 3. Emergency medical services is responsible for:a. Assessment of Patientb. Packagingc. Assess patient disentanglement and extricationd. Patient Handlinge. Transportation
vehicle and machinery6
Vehicle and Machinery
  • 4. Extrication personnel is responsible for:a. Vehicle stabilizationb. Create safe access for EMS Personnelc. Safe disentanglement of the patientd. Assist the EMS personnel
vehicle and machinery7
Vehicle and Machinery
  • C. Identify the hazards associated with vehicle and machinery rescues 1. Air Bagsa. Identify the air bag system within the vehicle by one of the following logos: SRS, SLR, Air Bag, Side Air Bag, Knee Impact Bag, Head Impact Bag, Head curtain Bag, etc.b. Electrical drain time1) Electrical drain time after the battery power has been disconnected could range from 30 seconds to 25 minutes.
vehicle and machinery8
Vehicle and Machinery
  • c. Safety Distances, 5”, 10” and 18”1) For safety of the rescue personnel and the patient, the distance of 5” for side air bag, 10” for driver’s air bag and 18” for passenger air bag should be maintained away form the bags.
fuel systems
Fuel systems

2. Fuel systemsa. Gasoline systemb. Diesel systemc. Compressed natural or liquefied petroleum gas systemd. Electrical system1) Electrical cars are not common but maybe seen in industrial areas. The largest concern for electrical cars is the presence of batteries and acid.

hydraulic shocks
Hydraulic Shocks

3. Hydraulic Shocks

a. absorbing bumpers

b. hatch back

c. hood pistons

d. hydraulic suspension

batteries and their locations
Batteries and their locations

Batteries and their locationsa. Under the hood (high)b. Under the hood (low/hidden)c. Under the back seatd. In the trunke. Wheel wells

vehicle and machinery9
Vehicle and Machinery
  • 4. Seat belt pretensioners have one of three locationsa. Low and Mid B postb. C post Lowc. Inner front and rear seat buckler area
vehicle and machinery10
Vehicle and Machinery
  • 5. Gears, chains and pulleysa. Power sourceb. Rugged equipmentc. Chemical hazard
vehicle and machinery11
Vehicle and Machinery
  • 6. Augers and conveyor beltsa. Remote areab. Time delay to the patientc. Power sourced. Rugged equipmente. Chemical hazard
d initial company actions
D. Initial Company Actions

1. Scene protection-safety of rescuer is first priority 2. Initial access into a vehicle or machinery 3. Initial stabilization

need for control at the scene of an incident
Need for control at the scene of an incident.

1. Traffic needs to be controlled for the safety of the rescue personnel.Crowds could restrict the rescuers’ activities at the scene2. Machine can be controlled in two ways:

need for control at the scene of an incident1
Need for control at the scene of an incident

CAUTION: Beware of stored potential energy or full cycle machinery.

EXAMPLE: Machinery that continues to move after power is removed.

need for control at the scene of an incident2
Need for control at the scene of an incident
  • a. Electrical power can be shut down and locked out at the main electrical boxb. Mechanical power (hydraulic, pneumatic or motor) can be shut down and locked out
7 1 water
7-1 Water

A. Fire service need for Water Rescue Awareness:1. Most jurisdictions have some type of body of water.

2. Most jurisdictions have the potential for flooding.

3. Many water related incidents require expertise beyond the normal capability of some fire departments.

  • a. Personnel and teams trained to the operations or technician level.
  • b. Proper personal protective equipment.
  • c. Proper technical rescue equipment.
  • B. NFPA recognizes four different water related disciplines at the operations and technician level: dive, ice, surf, and swift water.
  • C. Hazards that are associated with water rescue incidents:
human nature and the nature of fire service personnel
Human nature and the nature of fire service personnel.

a. Fire service personnel are action oriented. They want to act now.

b. Rescues are attempted without the proper training or equipment.

2 environmental hazards may include
2. Environmental hazards may include:

a. Extreme temperaturesi) Cold temperatures causing hypothermia, frostbite, and equipment malfunctions.

ii) Hot temperatures causing hyperthermia and overheating in personal protective gear. Under water survival time is lost in hot temperatures.

weather including rain snow and high winds
Weather, including rain, snow, and high winds.

Hypothermia is accelerated when personnel are wet or in the water.

Body heat is lost to still water 25 times as fast as to still air of the same temperature.

c aquatic environment
c. Aquatic environment

i) Animal life, fish, insect

ii) Plant life, seaweed

iii) Biohazards, bacterial, viral

3 general hazards
3. General hazards

a. Utilities including electrical, gas, sanitary, and communications.

b. Hazardous materials.

c. Personal hazards including trips, falls, steep and slippery terrain, drop offs, holes, hidden obstructions that may cause injury or entanglement.

4 hazards associated with dive operations
4. Hazards associated with dive operations:

a. Baro-trauma including decompression sickness, nitrogen narcosis, oxygen toxicity, embolism, etc.

b. Drowning. May be related to lost diver, loss of air, anxiety reactions.

c. Fatigue, exhaustion, heat stress, dehydration, or hypothermia.

d. Pre-existing medical conditions, smoking, or use of medications.

hazards associated with ice operations
Hazards associated with ice operations:

a. Cold injuries including frostbite and hypothermia.

b. Thin ice causing sudden emersion or entrapment under the ice.

6 hazards associated with surf operations
6. Hazards associated with surf operations:

a. Breaking waves generating extreme forces.

b. Undertows, tides, and currents.

7 hazards associated with swift water operations
7. Hazards associated with swift water operations:

a. Awesome, relentless power of moving water.

b. Strainers and debris.

c. Holes.

d. Obstructions.

i) Above the water surface.

ii) Below the water surface. (Upstream V’s and downstream V’s).

currents and patterns

e. Current patterns.i) Laminar flow.

ii) Helical flow (upwelling).

iii) Eddies (back current).

8 hazards associated with low head dams the killing drowning machine
8. Hazards associated with low head dams, The Killing/Drowning Machine.

a. Illusion (cannot be perceived from upstream and do not look particularly dangerous).

b. Hydraulic (vertical whirlpool)

c. Aeration in the hydraulic (causes cavitation to boat propellers).

personal protective equipment during water rescue incidents
Personal protective equipment during water rescue incidents.
  • Firefighting helmets, boots, and turnout gear are not typically appropriate for water rescue work.
  • Thermal protection including wet suits and dry suits.
  • PFD’s (personal flotation device) should be worn while in or near the water or while in a boat.
  • Tagline or lifeline.
  • Helmet.
e cold water near drowning
E. Cold water near drowning.

1. Age of the victim.

2. Temperature of the water.a. Below 70 degrees F.b. The patient could be below the thermocline.

3. Length of submersion (under 90 minutes still in rescue mode).

4. Quality BLS and ALS patient treatment.

f water rescue response for awareness level trained personnel
F. Water rescue response for awareness level trained personnel.

1. Assessment phase (size-up)a. Scope, magnitude, and type of water rescue incident.b. Environmental factors and potential for changing conditions.i) Change in weather conditions.ii) Loss of daylight.iii) Water levels and current changing drastically (flash flooding).

water rescue
Water rescue
  • Assessment of hazards.
  • Location and number of victims.
  • Risk/benefit analysis (rescue vs. recovery).
  • Access to the scene.
2 initial tasks
2. Initial tasks.

a. Gain control of the scene (establish site security).

b. Establish an Incident Command System.

c. Accountability and safety of personnel (This starts with proper training and equipment).

d. Evaluate the patient’s condition (they may or may not be able to assist in their own rescue).

e. Evaluate the resources available and those that will be needed.

f secure and interview witnesses
f. Secure and interview witnesses.

i) Try to keep witnesses at the scene.

ii) Interview witnesses separately.

iii) Collect the witness’ personal information (they might need to be interviewed again).

g establish a last seen point
g. Establish a last seen point.

i) Triangulate with more than one witness.

ii) Use of reference object (same size as person, vehicle, or plane that went down).

iii) A hole in the ice is an excellent last seen point. Don’t destroy it.

h evaluate physical evidence
h. Evaluate physical evidence.

i) Notes, clothes, and footprints.

ii) Tire tracks, debris, oil slick, and bubbles.

identifying the need for a water rescue response beyond the awareness level
Identifying the need for a water rescue response beyond the awareness level.

1. The AHJ should have an emergency response system established for water related incidents. This may include the response of:

a. Operations and technician level trained personnel (divers, ice divers, swift water technicians, etc.).

b. Police and evidence technicians.

c. Specialized equipment (boats, tow trucks, extrication equipment, etc.)

water rescue1
  • d. EMS response.i) An ambulance for each patient and one for dive support.ii) Air transport to a level I trauma facility.
  • e. Rehab personnel should be considered early on in the incident.
  • f. An operational plan may include: Reach, Throw, Row and Go.
2 consider requesting divers early in an incident
2. Consider requesting divers early in an incident.

a. Victims at the surface may slip under the water before a surface rescue can be executed.

b. Divers can only last so long before they need rehab. Keep the incident operating in rescue mode.

8 1 wilderness
8-1 Wilderness

A. IntroductionIn 1956, the National Search and Rescue Plan was published. This plan established the United States Air Force as the executive agent for inland search and rescue, covering the continental United States, less the major navigable waterways.

b four core elements in wilderness sar operations
B. Four core elements in Wilderness SAR operations.

1. Locate the victim

2. Reach the victim

3. Stabilize the victim

4. Evacuate the victim

c seven 7 components that are used to complete the elements of a sar operation
C. Seven (7) components that are used to complete the elements of a SAR operation.

1. Pre-planning - The Organization and Management Guidelines. Includes call-out procedures / guidelines and equipment .2. Notification - We have to be notified of a problem before we can handle it. 3. Planning and Strategy - The process of gathering information so that an assessment can be done. 4. Tactics - Type of response or solution to handle the problem.

seven 7 components that are used to complete the elements of a sar operation
Seven (7) components that are used to complete the elements of a SAR operation.

5. Operations - The field phase where the tactical solutions are carried out.

6. Suspension - Operation is discontinued.

7. Critique - Evaluation of the participants, methods and strategies.

resources that can be used for wilderness search and rescue
Resources that can be used for Wilderness Search and Rescue.

1. Search dogs-cover more area in a shorter period of time than humans2. Trackers3. Aircraft4. Ground air search specialist5. Rope rescue specialists6. Water rescue specialists7. Trench rescue specialist 8. Collapse building search

e calculating search urgency
E. Calculating search urgency.

Subject Profile

Weather Profile

Equipment Profile

Subject Experience Profile

Terrain and Hazards Profile

History of Incidents in this area

Bastard Search

  • NOTE: The lower the value of each factor and of the sum of all factors, the more urgent the situation. ( See Relative Urgency Rating Factors Sheet)
f three broad types of responses used dependant on search urgency
F. Three broad types of responses used dependant on search urgency.

1. Emergency Response

2. Measured Response

3. Evaluative Response

1 emergency response
1. Emergency Response –

Best on information, convinced death or serious injury could occur if help does not arrive.Blitz or Hasty Team - minimum number of experienced rescuers that sent out to locate the victim.

This is followed by a support team with additional equipment. The margin of safety is fairly narrow and a perceptible amount of risk involved in the necessaryresponse.

2 measured response
2. Measured Response –

based on when appropriate information on hand is insufficient to dictate the exact outline of a search and rescue action plan.

3 evaluative response
3. Evaluative Response –

Occurs when the reported problem is unconfirmed or seems likely to resolve itself.

lost person s report
Lost person(s) report

1. This goal of interviewing and obtaining information from participant(s) or witnesses is to devise an effective course of action.2. Each person lost receives a file.


a. Part I - Is information that is critical in determiningdecisions of the initiation phases of a search.

b. Part II - May be significant later in the mission.

h four general hazards associated with wilderness sar operations
H. Four general hazards associated with wilderness SAR operations.

1. Personal Hazards include blisters, scrapes, scratches, falls, blows, bruises, dehydration, and so forth.

2. Environmental Hazards include insect bites and stings, poisonous plants, exposure injuries, snow-blindness, altitude illness,lightning, sunburn, dangerous wildlife, and so forth.

3. Terrain Hazards include cliffs, avalanches, standing water (e.g., ponds, lakes), flat ice (e.g., ponds, lakes), moving water, caves, mines, wells, high winds, snow, coastal white water surf, and so forth.

  • 4. Man-Made Hazards include booby-trapped stills and labs, hazardous materials dumps, trained attack dogs and so forth.
i there are four basic means of establishing a probable search area
I. There are four basic means of establishing a probable search area.

1. The Theoretical Method. The probable search area is generated in this method by using tables that express the area as a function of distance traveled by the lost subject. This necessitates a reliable determination of the Point Last Seen (PLS). The area's boundary is a circle drawn on the map centered on the PLS. The length of its radius is the maximum distance the victim could have journeyed in that terrain in the time elapsed since he was last seen.

2 the statistical method
2. The Statistical Method.

Case studies of people in the wilderness provide the data for this method.

3 the subjective method
3. The Subjective Method.

Historical data, intuition , the location of the natural barriers and clues, and consideration of the physical and mental limitations of the victim are taken into account.

4 the mattson method
4. The Mattson Method.

Balances subjective and objective information and uses individual personnel to view their probable search area independently, then combining their percentage of where he/she thinks they are to the rest of the group. The total percentage from all personnel involved is added and the greatest percent is where the search will be started.

j three types of search tactics
J. Three types of search tactics.

1. Type I (Detection Phase) - Hasty Teams

2. Type II - Open Grid is relatively fast, efficient search of locales of high probability using methods that produce the highest results per hour using search dogs, wide search patterns flow by aircraft, and open grid sweep searches This is three to seven searchers widely spaced at approx.. 300-600 feet.

3. Type III - Close Grid is compromised of approx.. thirty searchers walking in a line approx.. 15 to 20 feet apart. May be less for evidence recovery.

k initial tasks of a first in company
K. Initial Tasks of a First-in Company

1. Establish Incident Management System

2. Evaluate Search Urgency

3. Obtain Lost Persons Report

4. Determine Type of Response

5. Determine Available Resources

6. Determine Probable Search Area

relative urgency rating factors
Relative Urgency Rating Factors

Factor Value

Numeric Rating

Subject Profile


Very Young 1 Very Old 1 Other 2-3

medical condition
Medical Condition

Known or suspected injured or ill 1-2 Healthy 3 Known Fatality 3

number of subjects
Number of Subjects

One Alone 1 More than one (unless separation suspected) 2-3

weather profile
Weather Profile

Existing hazardous weather 1 Predicted hazardous weather (<8 hours) 1-2 Predicted hazardous weather (>8 hours) 2 No Hazardous weather predicted 3

equipment profile
Equipment Profile

Inadequate for the environment 1 Questionable for the environment 1-2 Adequate for the environment 3

subject experience profile
Subject Experience Profile

Not Experienced, does not know area 1 Not experienced, knows area 1-2

Experienced, not familiar with the area 2 Experienced, knows the area 3

terrain and hazards profile
Terrain and Hazards Profile

Known hazardous terrain or other hazards 1 Few or no hazards 2-3 History of Incidents in this Area 1-3

Bastard Search 2-3 SUM

appropriate response to urgency ratings
Appropriate Response to Urgency Ratings

Factor Sum Response 8-12 Emergency Response 13-18 Measure Response 19-24 Evaluated Response 25-27 Search Situation or Missing Person

9 1 lost person check list
9-1 Lost Person Check List

NOTE: File separate report for each person. Detailed answers are needed to identify clues when found in the field.

Place “none”, “NA”, or “unsure” in blanks as appropriate.

part i
Part I:

Information critical to immediate decisions and the initiation phases of a search. Record all of Part I information at the time of first notice of a lost or overdue person.Incident Number: Date: Time: Report Taken By: Name of Missing Person: Hours Overdue Local Address Home Address: Nicknames:

physical description
Physical Description

Age: DOB: Race: Color: Height: Weight: Build: Hair Color: Hair Length: Sideburns: Facial Hair: Straight/Curly/Wavy Balding: Eye Color: Facial Features Shape: Complexion: Any distinguishing marks, scars, tattoos: General Appearance:


Shirt, Sweater Style Color Coat Style Color Rain Gear Style Color Pants Style Color Gloves Style Color Glasses Style Color Shoes Style Color Other Clothing


Pack Style Brand Color

Tent Style Brand Color

Sleeping Bag Style Brand Color

Food What Brands Amount

Water Canteen Style Amount

Flashlight Matches Knife Map




Fishing Equipment

Firearms Type Brand Ammo.

Camera Brand

Money Amount

Snow Shoes Type Brand Binding Type

Ice Axe Brand Cover

Skis Brand Length Color

trip plans
Trip Plans

Going to Via Purpose How Long How many in group Group Affiliation Transportation Started at When Car located at Type of Car License Verified Alternate car at Type of Car License Verified Pick up/Return Time Where

last seen
Last Seen

When Where By whom Present If not present, location Phone Going which way How long ago Special reason for leaving Unusual comments before leaving How long overdue

contacts person would make upon reaching civilization
Contacts Person Would Make Upon Reaching Civilization

Home address Phone Anyone home Friend Home Address Phone Friend Home Address Phone


General Condition Physical Handicaps Medical Problems Psychological problems Any known external factors that could affect subjects behavior.


Consequences without medication Eyesight without glasses

actions taken so far
Actions Taken So Far

By (Friends, Family) Actions Taken When

part ii
Part II:

Information that may be significant later in the incident. Can be obtained after initial actions are taken and further information on the subject is necessary.

personality habits
Personality Habits

Smoke How often Brand Drink Brand Drugs Type Hobbies, interest Work Outgoing or quiet Evidence of leadership Religion Serious Feeling towards adults What does the person value most


Who is person closest to in the family Status in school/work Any recent letters Give up easy or keep going Where was person born and raised Any trouble with the law

for children
For Children

Afraid of what animals Afraid of Dark What training regarding to do when lost What are persons actions when hurt Talks to strangers; accepts rides Active type or lethargic

for groups overdue
For Groups Overdue

Any person clashes in the group

Any strong leaders

What is the competitive spirit of the group

What would actions be if separated

Any persons especially close

What is the experience of the leader and rest of group


(To Prevent Media/Press Complications)Father’s Occupation Parents separated/Divorced Families desire to employ special assistance Name, relationship, address, phone of contact relative if in good condition:

Name, relationship, address, phone of contact relative if in poor condition or dead.

9 1 trench and excavation
9-1 Trench and Excavation

A. A trench is an excavation that is deeper than it is wide and less then 15 feet wide. OSHA has published regulations dealing with trenches in 29 CFR Part 1926. This standard regulates the construction and occupation of trenches over 5 feet deep and shallower trenches with special hazards. Illinois Department of Labor (IDOL) has adopted 29 CFR 1926 as the state regulation.


OSHA requires that Escape routes, Air quality monitoring and other protective measures be utilized at all trench excavations.

c trench hazards
C. Trench Hazards

Secondary collapses are by far the most lethal hazard in trench rescues. Studies have shown that trench walls often collapse in less than 1/10th of a second and as many as 65% of all deaths in trench cave-ins are of would-be rescuers. This is because virtually all of the hazards associated with trench rescues are hidden from the untrained rescuer. Also, trench rescues are not common occurrences.

trench hazards
Trench Hazards
  • 2. The four types of collapses are:
  • a. Slough-in
  • b. Sidewall-in
  • c. Shear-in
  • d. Spoil-in
trench hazards1
Trench Hazards
  • 3. Trenches dug too deep or too wide, OSHA provides guidelines for the general construction of trenches up to 20 feet deep and 15 feet wide. Excavations beyond these dimensions require special engineering by a Registered Professional Engineer (RPE).
trench hazards2
Trench Hazards
  • 4. It is easy to get fooled into entering an unprotected trench to rescue a worker who has fallen, or is ill. Just because the fire department is there doesn't mean that the trench will remain intact while you make the rescue.
trench hazards3
Trench Hazards
  • 5. Rescues are usually long-term operations.Most rescues require as much as 4-10 hours to complete. Victims cannot merely be pulled-out from under the dirt, therefore, the victim must be completely uncovered before he can be removed from the trench. Equipment needed may be extensive and not commonly available.
trench hazards4
Trench Hazards
  • 6. Many other factors must be considered which will effect trench stability. In some cases the following factors must merely be taken into consideration, while others require specific remedies by OSHA.a. Exposure to the elementsb. Superimposed loadsc. Underground utilitiesd. Unsupported structures (surface encumbrances)e. Water i) Undermines trench walls causing collapseii) drowning hazard
trench hazards5
Trench Hazards
  • D. Soil Classification OSHA classifies soils as Class-A through Class-C. Class-A soil is the most stable, and will include some form of clay. Class-C soil is extremely unstable and will be comprised of either granular soils like sand, or wet soil of any type.
  • 1. Trenches should be analyzed immediately after they are excavated, and should be re-analyzed periodically for any changes which have occurred.
  • 2. Wet soils of any type are dangerous due to the added weight of the water, the loss of friction due to the moisture, and the mechanics of the movement of the water through the soil.
  • 3. Layered soils. Trench walls will often expose layers of different soils.
  • 4. Fissured soil. Fissures (cracks) which are visible in the trench walls or in the soil surrounding the trench can indicate soil which is likely to cave-in shortly.
  • 5. Previously disturbed soils. The most stable soils are those which have gone undisturbed for thousands of years. Once the earth has been disturbed, it is impossible to return it to its original stability.

Vibration is extremely destructive to trench stability. Vibration will speed-up the collapse of the walls, and will magnify any other factors, which are effecting he trench.

7. A single cubic foot of dirt can weigh as much as 145 lbs., and will average about 100 lbs. per square foot. A typical small cave-in involves about 1.5 cubic yards of dirt, or about 4,000 lbs.

e protective systems

1. OSHA provides three methods for protecting workers in trenches, sloping, shielding, and shoring. No worker is to enter a trench greater than 5 feet deep unless one of these protections is in place.


Sloping involves cutting back the sides of a trench to an angle at which the earth will no longer slide. The angle, which is sought, is referred to as the "angle of repose" and is merely the angle at which the soil will no longer slide.

  • Shielding involves the use of extremely strong metal boxes, which have been engineered to withstand the pressure of the earth for the size trench that is being worked in. Shield will protect against moving dirt as long as they are properly in place. The shields must be above or even with the trench lip, and no more then 2 feet off the bottom.
  • c. Shoring is a method of protecting the worker by constructing a support system within the trench, which will pressurize the trench walls, enough to create "arches" of support, which will support the trench walls. These systems are NOT strong enough to stop moving dirt. They will only hold up dirt supported by the “Arch” effect.
shoring systems
Shoring systems
  • 2. Shoring systems may be constructed with a variety of materials and may be constructed in a variety of configurations. System contains crossbraces and uprights. Additional elements are added to strengthen the system, these beam-like members are called walers. Most of these materials are not available at your local lumberyard.
  • 3. OSHA provides charts for timber shoring and hydraulic shoring for dry trenches up to 15 feet wide and 20 feet deep. Beyond these dimensions, or when special conditions exit, the shoring system must be designed by a registered professional engineer, or the system must be constructed in accordance with the manufacturer’s tabulated data.
  • 4. In general, the weaker, deeper and wide the trench is the stronger and more numerous the shoring members must be.
  • 5. Additional regulations for worker safety. In addition to the regulations for insuring trench stability, OSHA also regulates many other conditions, which may pose hazards to workers.
initial company operations

1. The typical first-in company will not have trained trench rescue personnel on-board, much less the proper equipment to perform a rescue. Initial response personnel can still perform vital tasks, which will serve to speed-up the rescue, protect the victim, or eliminate the need for rescue or recovery operations.

initial company operations1
  • 2. Some non-entry options that are available are:a. Place a ladder into the trench for the victims to get out themselves.
initial company operations2
  • 3. Activate a trench rescue response plan as soon as a trench rescue request has been received. Time is of the essence, as secondary collapses are likely to occur shortly after the initial collapse, and will likely eliminate the chances for a rescue.
initial company operations3
  • 4. As in all emergency responses, an Incident Command System or Incident Management System must be put into effect.
initial company operations4
  • 5. Do not allow personnel into an unprotected trench. Don't let tunnel vision risk your personnel. Remember that secondary collapses are likely to occur quickly potentially trapping any rescuers.
initial company operations5
  • 6. Stop sources of vibration. Vibration contributes significantly to the likelihood of further collapses. Eliminate sources of vibrations by stopping traffic for at least 300 feet. Do not allow the use of heavy equipment.
initial company operations6
  • 7. Set-up control zones limit access to the trench. 8. Set up ground pads to ensure that the rescuers are standing on stable ground.9. Move to spoil pile from the trench area. (2 feet or more) If any hazards are present, do not place any rescuers in harms way just to move some dirt.
initial company operations7
  • 10. Try to locate the victim's position. Approach the trench from the ends to perform a reconnaissance of the victim’s location and condition. As soon as possible, one or more ladders should be placed in the trench to provide a “quick exit” should someone accidentally fall in.
initial company operations8
  • 11. If the victim is visible, mark his position in relation to the trench walls by scoring the ground on either side of the trench.
  • 12. If the victim cannot be seen, get the best information you can from his co-workers regarding his last position. Mark this position.
initial company operations9
  • 13. Prepare for expected injuries. Many types of injuries are found in victims who have been trapped in cave-ins. Be prepared to handle the following:a. Open and closed fracturesb. Lung injuriesc. Head injuriesd. Spinal injuriese. Injury due to lack of oxygenf. Hypothermiag. Crush syndrome
10 1 overview of all rescue situations
10-1 Overview of all rescue situations
  • A. Structural Collapse
  • B. Rope
  • C. Confined Space
  • D. Vehicle and Machinery
  • E. Water
  • F. Wilderness
  • G. Trench and Excavation
now for a short test
  • You have completed all the requirements as established by the OSFM and the steering committee.
  • I congratulate you taking this course to better yourself and the entire fire service.
  • Thanks for being here.