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China Review

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  1. China Review

  2. What were the primary goals of the Taiping Rebellion Hong Xiuquan, a Christian, wanted to reform society based on Western principles. He advocated for a modernization of Chinese society, the abolition of private property, and a free public education.

  3. What are the primary beliefs of Confucianism Confucianism, which lays out a code of moral conduct, focuses on respect through Filial Piety (respect for your elders) and the Five Key Relationships (which tell you how to act with people depending on your relationship to them). By the ordering of human relationships, political and social harmony would be created.

  4. What was the Meiji Reformation The Meiji Reformation (a Japanese reform movement) was designed to embrace Western practices in order to avoid imperialization by powers such as the United States and Great Britain.

  5. The Self Strengthening Movement attempted to: Blend Chinese cultural traditions with western technology

  6. What was the goal of the Hundred Days of Reforms GuangXu wanted to modernize Chinese society through reforming the civil service exam, government, and industry.

  7. What was the Opium War and why caused it? The Opium War was a drug war between the Chinese and the British when the British refused to end the opium trade to China. The British initially began trading opium because they needed to find a product that the Chinese wanted so they would reverse an unfavorable balance of trade as the Chinese required they pay in gold and silver.

  8. Daoism is based on: Daoism focuses on a rejection of social activism and instead focuses on becoming one with nature and a life of introspection. This principle is expressed in the art of Wu Wei or “doing nothing”.

  9. Who founded Legalism and what does it believe? Legalism was founded by Han Feizi and advocated for strict law and harsh punishment in order to control people.

  10. What were the 3 Principles of the People and who stated them? Established by Sun Yatsen, the Three Principles of the People focused on economic security, Chinese nationalism, and a constitutional / democratic government.

  11. Define Sphere of Influence A sphere of influence is complete economic control over a territory or region. In China, Russia, Japan, Germany, France and the British all controlled spheres of influence within the country.

  12. What was the Boxer Rebellion The Boxers (also known as the Righteous Harmonious Fists) rebelled against foreign interference in China. They lost… badly…

  13. What is the Mandate of Heaven? The Mandate of Heaven explains the rise and fall of Chinese dynasties through the Qing. It says that Heaven appoints the ruler based on their virtue.

  14. Describe the Feudal System in traditional Japan. In traditional Japan, the emperor was the head of society. He was considered a descendent from the Sun Goddess, however, held very little power. The real power in Japan was held by the Shogun who controlled the Daimyo who controlled the Samurai. Then on the bottom of society were the peasants.

  15. What is Shintoism? Shinto is the traditional religion of Japan based off principles of nature and spirit worship. These spirits were called Kami. (Basically, Shinto is just like Native American religions)

  16. What is the significance of the Yin Yang symbol? Originally significant to Confucists, the yin yang was adopted and has become a major principle in Daoism. It represents the balance and harmony within nature as the principle of opposites.

  17. Why is Nanking remembered? The Rape of Nanking was perpetrated by the Japanese against the city during World War II. The troops rounded up the Chinese citizens, killed them, and destroyed the city. It serves as an example of Japanese brutality against the Chinese during the war.

  18. What makes Chinese / Japanese writing unique? What is significant about this type of writing system? Chinese / Japanese writing is based off of pictures – called pictographs. Symbols can also be combined as ideographs to create new words/symbols. By using a pictorial writing system, anyone who understands the meaning of the character can understand what is being written, regardless of how they pronounce it. This allows individuals to speak different dialects and still communicate with each other, thus creating a national unity and increasing domestic trade.

  19. Why were the Communists able to defeat the Nationalists? The Communists had widespread popular support from the peasants because of the promise to redistribute land and end oppression. Additionally, they respected the peasants when they passed through their villages rather than killing them. The Guomindang, on the other hand, was seen as brutal, corrupt, and reliant on the West.

  20. What president was responsible for normalizing relations with China? Richard Nixon

  21. What was the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution? The Cultural Revolution (lasting from 1966-1976) was meant to purge society of “bourgeois” (or Western) practices and allow people to experience the Communist revolution first hand. The Cultural Revolution was led primarily by the Red Guard, groups of students responsible for punishing party members (and others) who were harboring “counterrevolutionary” tendencies. In reality, these student groups were responsible for the majority of the violence associated with this time period as they focused their attacks on party leaders, teachers, and family members.

  22. Who was Chiang Kai Shek Chiang Kai Shek was the nationalist leader of the Guomindang fighting against Mao Zedong during the Civil War. Ultimately, Chiang was defeated and forced to flee to the island of Taiwan (formally Formosa).

  23. Define Collectivization Collectivization, a policy instituted by Mao Zedong in which he forced the joining of land and labor in order to create communes to carry out his Great Leap Forward.

  24. What is the importance of the Long March Led by communist leader Mao Zedong (who later became the leader of the new People’s Republic of China) in 1934 as a retreat from the Guomindang led by Chiang Kai Shek. Mao and the communists emerged as communist heroes for their resilience against the cruel nationalists and friends to the peasants.

  25. What was Tiananmen Square Tiananmen Square was sparked by student protests against the Chinese government in pursuance of greater individual rights / freedoms. The government responded with intense violence and the event has served as an example of human rights violations within China.

  26. Who was Sun Yatsen? Sun Yatsen became the first leader of China after the fall of the Qing. He tried to govern on his Three Principles of the People, but resigned unable to carry out his promises. He later reestablished a government in Southern China in 1921 and was ultimately succeeded by Chiang Kai Shek in 1924 after his death.

  27. What was Mao’s Great Leap Forward? What was its result? The Great Leap Forward attempted to modernize China by overtaking the West in manufacturing steel and other goods by seeking to rapidly industrializing while avoiding common problems with urbanization / unemployment. Drawing on the large peasant base, Mao combined land into communes through the process of collectivization (forced joining of land and labor) and allowing under / unemployed peasants to work the factories. Overall, Mao’s policy failed miserably and production rates plummeted as agricultural production failed due to a lack of individuals to harvest crops and failed agricultural policies dictated by the state. This lead to a poor harvest massive famine in which 55 million people died.

  28. And just for taking the time to study from my PowerPoint that I put so much time into, here are the short answer questions…

  29. You need to look up and prepare your answer though… • Question 1: Compare how both China and Russia turned communist. How were the actions of their leaders similar? What was the overall result for both these countries? Provide 3 specific points of comparison. • Question 2:As we examined in the PBS documentary Young and Restless in China there are many tensions that young people face as they make their way in a developing country. Discuss 3 issues within China faced by these individuals that are helping to shape a modern society.