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Conformity

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  1. Conformity

  2. My Homepage & WebCT • All Slides Shown in Class • Course Packet • Course related readings and activities (for fun) • Syllabus • http://www.psychology.iastate.edu/faculty/madon/homepage.htm

  3. Social Influence & Conformity • Social Influence: Use of social power to change the behavior or attitudes of others in a particular direction Conformity: Change in behavior or attitude as a result of real or imagined social influence cp

  4. 3 Types of Conformity • 1. Acceptance: • publicly conform • privately agree • 2. Compliance: • publicly conform • privately disagree • 3. Obedience: • conform to command

  5. Norms • Rules for accepted or expected behavior.

  6. Autokinetic Effect Study • Estimate how far point of light moved in dark room • After many trials, individual’s estimates converged • Repeated procedure in a group situation cp

  7. Autokinetic Effect Study cp

  8. The Autokinetic Effect Study • Retained group norm when tested alone later Acceptance. Publicly conformed and privately agreed

  9. Autokinetic Effect Study Informational social influence: Used others’ estimates to guide own estimates

  10. The Line Study A control group (who did study alone) almost always gave correct answer. Compliance. Publicly conformed but privately disagreed

  11. The Line Study Normative social influence: Conformed to be accepted by group

  12. The Johnny Rocco Case Mode Deviate Slider Most common viewpoint Most deviant viewpoint Most deviant then most common viewpoint cp

  13. The Johnny Rocco Case • Participants rated who they most wanted to leave the group Mode Slider Deviate 4.47 4.76 6.11 Wanted Deviate to go the most Not Significantly Different cp

  14. Milgram Quote • “The social psychology of this century reveals a major lesson: • Often it is not so much the kind of person a man is as the kind of situation in which he finds himself that determines how he will act”

  15. Reciprocation

  16. Reciprocation Two forms of Reciprocation • 1) Repayment • Giving to those who have given to you

  17. Christmas Card Study • Phil Kunz, a psychologist at Brigham Young University in Provo Utah sent 578 Christmas cards (signed “Joyce and Phil”) to strangers living in Chicago, Illinois. 117 (over 20%) sent a card in return A significant number of return cards had notes or letters enclosed Only 6 of the 117 people who returned a card said they could not remember them cp

  18. Repayment Donations without gift Donations with gift 18% 35%

  19. Repayment Obligation Guilt Evolutionarily adaptive

  20. Reciprocation Two forms of Reciprocation • 2) Concessions • Make concession in return for concession made by another

  21. Reciprocation • Two step procedure: • Large request (get No!) • Smaller request (get Yes!) • Works because: • 1st request makes 2nd request seem more moderate and acceptable • By making a 2nd, more moderate, request the requester appears to have made a concession, which makes other person feel obligated to make a reciprocal concession cp

  22. Reciprocation • Door-in-the-Face • Technique

  23. County Youth Study: Cialdini et al. (1975) • Independent variable: Request Experimental group: “Would you be willing to serve as unpaid counselors to juvenile delinquents 2 hrs./wk for 2 years?”(inflated request) “No? Ok, would you be willing to serve as unpaid chaperons for juvenile delinquents on a day trip to the zoo?” (concession) Control group: Asked.... “Would you be willing to serve as unpaid chaperons for juvenile delinquents on a day trip to the zoo?” cp

  24. County Youth Study cp

  25. Door-in-the-Face Technique • Factors that reduce its effectiveness: • Initial request too extreme • Request for selfish purposes • Delay between 1st and 2nd request cp

  26. That’s Not All Technique • Two step strategy: • Inflated request • Offer discount or bonus

  27. Cupcake Sale: Burger (1986) • 3 Conditions: • That’s Not All: • Cost per cupcake $1.25, then reduced to $1.00 • Bargain: • Cost per cupcake $1.00, had been $1.25 • Control: • Cost per cupcake $1.00 cp

  28. Cupcake Sale cp

  29. Concession Responsibility Satisfaction

  30. Commitment & Consistency

  31. Commitment and Consistency • Remember cognitive dissonance? Feeling of anxiety or tension Arises when behaviors = attitudes

  32. “Please call if you have to change your plans.” 30% no show rate “Will you please call if you have to change your plans?” 10% no show rate

  33. Commitment and Consistency • Once we make a commitment, we • feel pressure from ourselves and others to behave consistently with that commitment. CP

  34. Beach Towel Study (Moriarty, 1975) Control group: no commitment Experimental group: commitment: “Could you please watch my things”

  35. Beach Towel Study Control Experimental CP

  36. Here’s another example... • Researchers asked 1/2 of the residents in an apt. complex to sign a petition to create a recreation center for the handicapped • 2 weeks later, all residents were approached and asked to donate money to the cause This reflects a two-step process for the 1/2 of participants who signed the petition: Step 1: obtain commitment (i.e., petition signature) Step 2: get consistency in behavior (i.e., donate $) CP

  37. Results Control Group Experimental Group 53% 92%

  38. This process is called... • The Foot-in-the-Door Technique

  39. Foot-in-the-Door Technique • Compliance with small request • increases chance of compliance • with larger request later

  40. American Cancer Society Study (Cialdini & Schroeder, 1976) • Control Group: “I’m collecting money for the American Cancer Society. Would you be willing to help by giving a donation.” • Experimental Group: “I’m collecting money for the American Cancer Society. Would you be willing to help by giving a donation. Even a penny would help.” CP

  41. American Cancer Society Study $30.34 $18.55 CP

  42. Commitments “grow their own legs” • People add reasons and justifications to support the commitments they have made. • This causes prior commitments to be self-perpetuating because people will stick to their prior commitments even when the original factor leading to compliance is gone. CP

  43. Low Ball Technique • Costs concealed until commitment is made

  44. Quit Smoking Study (Joule, 1987) • Smokers asked to complete survey After committing, told “no smoking” 85% 12%

  45. Commitment and Consistency • Why does it work? • Consistency is valued • Consistency saves mental resources

  46. Factors that Affect Commitment and Consistency • Is the commitment voluntary or forced? He that complies against his will is of his own opinion still Is the commitment made in public or private? Did the commitment take effort or not? Is the commitment made actively or passively? CP

  47. Aids Awareness Study • Active: Passive: • answer ‘YES’ on skip 2 items • 2 items 74% 26%

  48. Scarcity

  49. Scarcity • People value things that are less available

  50. Scarcity • Scarcity creates potential for loss. • Fear of loss more important than possibility of gain