U** AC Power Plus Service Training
Concept and Developments U** AC Tergo Power Plus S3 TRAC ErgoLogic AC Control of Driving/Lifting EPSSteering 8 7 1 ATC 2 Performance Soft Hydraulics UNS Tergo Power Plus New Options 360° Steering Height Indicator 6 2 CAN BUS All Controllers New Mast 140/160 + 200 New Profile New Bearings MK 2 New Seat New Keyboard 3 5 4
AC Development. • R & D activity started in June 1996. • First prototype 1997. • Extensive test program in Atlet autotrack at the end of 1997/98. • First field test on 10 UHS trucks in the beginning of 1998. • R&D study of regenerative braking effects on battery carried out with Chalmers University of Technology. • Standard on all trucks from January 2000
Test Results.Compared With Earlier DC System • Around 20% higher acceleration torque available. • Around 40% higher brake torque available. • 45 - 100% longer driving time possible in really tough cycles with respect to critical temperatures. • Up to 20% of consumed drive motor current can be generated when braking.
Advantages - Drive. • Higher speed and improved acceleration. • Maintained performance throughout the shift. • Motor runs cooler - extended utilisation possible. • No need for direction contactors. • No brushes in motor. • Improved overall performance with the same physical size of motors. • Quiet running due to high frequency control.
Advantages - Drive. • Braking: • High torque, fully controllable motor braking via both speed control and brake pedal. • All motor brake energy regenerative. • Stepless braking. • Control over the vehicle improved.
Advantages - Hydraulic. • Motor efficiency better - cooler motor. • New possibilities - e g. regeneration when lowering. • No brushes in motor. • Quiet running due to high frequency control. • Motor maintenance significantly reduced. • No electric contact with any moving parts of the motors. • No wear dust from brushes.
What Parts Are New ? • Traction and pump motors. • Traction and pump controllers. • Contactor panel. • Electrically released brake (ERB). • Electrically controlled hydraulic valve. • Hydraulic control arrangement. • Steering motor.
Which Modules are Affected? • ‘Battery wall’ substantially changed. • Brake pedal assembly slightly changed. • Completely new hydraulic control panel. • New steering and drive unit.
Foot Pedal Assembly Brake Total Switch Accelerator Transducer Brake Transducer Adjustment Screw
Foot Pedal Assembly Accelerator Transducer Direction Switches Brake Transducer
Hydraulic Unit Lowering speed regulator valve Emergency lower Pressure relief valve Emergency reach Oil temperature sensor
Drive Unit • Single step brake. • Emergency/ parking. • AC induction drive motor. • No brushes. • Geared steering with 360 degree option.
Fuse F1 10A 80 volt ! ATC 2 ATC2 Same ATC but new software version v3.40 and above
Power Supply Supply Components K9 (Brake) K7 (Brake) K10 (Line) K12 (Emergency) 48A K3 (Key) B+2 K6 (Key) K11 (Emergency) R300/301 Fuses F6 - F10 F12,F14,F18-F19 Fuses F1,F4,F5 AGND B12V B5V B+3 B+4 B+5
Drive Controller Pump Controller Pump Motor Drive Motor
AC Controller Status LED Battery +ve Fused B+ Motor field terminals Control connector Battery -ve
AC Drive Motor Connector for rotation and temperature sensor Field terminals.
Simple speed regulation On Off On Off On Off
Output Waveform On Off
Three phase technique Magnetic field round coils Resulting magnetic flux
The AC induction motor with squirrel cage rotor does not have a stationary field. Three phase technique
Instead there is a 3 phase winding in the stator which when connected to the AC variable frequency controller creates a rotating field in the stator and rotor. Three phase technique
The field also gives a flux in the airgap between rotor and stator. Current is then induced in the rotor producing torque. Three phase technique
Current and torque are approximately proportional to rotor slip.If the rotor rotates at the same speed as the stator field, no current is induced and no torque generated. Three phase technique
Three phase technique Empty stator fed by 3 phase power
The CAN bus system What is CAN ? CONTROLLER A REA NETWORK • Advantages: • Reduced wiring. • Use of sensor information from other controllers. • Change of parameters without extra adjustment devices. • Constant information exchange between the ATC computer and the controllers (e.g. error messages, temperatures, speed)
CAN BUS Connectors Cooling fan controlled by ATC in 5 steps Power Fuse Drive Controller Pump Controller
Can Bus system 14 dec 14:08 80% E97 120 h Can high Can low +12 V 0 V AC Controller Drive AC Controller Pump ATC2 Analogue in Digital in 3 Phase AC 3 Phase AC 0V +5V N. C + 4,5 V Note: 120 Ohm resistor is connected between CAN high and CAN low at the end of each branch of the CAN bus. FWD Joystick 1 BWD Rotation/direction sensor Rotation/direction sensor Joystick 2 Speed sensor Temp sensor Temp sensor Joystick 3 Brake sensor Drive motor Pump motor
Can Bus system 14 dec 14:08 80% E97 120 h Can high Can low +12 V 0 V AC Controller Pump Lift ATC2 Analogue in Digital out 3 Phase AC Reach 0V +5V Pulse width modulation for proportional lowering valve. NOTE: All other valves are on/off Tilt Joystick 1 Hydraulic valve Rotation/direction sensor Joystick 2 Temp sensor Joystick 3
Can Bus System 14 dec 14:08 80% E97 120 h Can high Can low +12 V 0 V Electric Steering Inductive Steering ATC2 Analog in Digital in 0V +5V N. C + 4,5 V FWD Rotation/direction sensor Joystick 1 SA BWD Steer Motor Option Joystick 2 Fahr Snsor Brems Sensor Joystick 3
Performance Settings.Machine parameters • Every machine type has its own basic performance settings. • Machine parameters are preset from the factory. • The factory settings are not normally changed after delivery.
Performance Settings.Driver Categories. • There are 4 sets of Driver Category parameters. • Preset from factory but can be changed by trained service personnel. • AC Driver 1 = 100% (Skilled driver) • AC Driver 2 = 90 % (Moderate driver) • AC Driver 3 = 80 % (Novice driver) • AC Driver 4 = 110 % (Not for normal operation !) • A Driver Category must be selected when programming driver codes.
Performance Settings.IndividualDriver Settings. • Every driver can set his own performance profile, provided that individual user/password codes are used. The performance profile is stored and automatically brought up every time the driver starts the truck. • The default user/password 1/2222 is associated to the ‘AC Driver 1' category by default. • The parameters which the driver can adjust are a percentage reduction of the corresponding Driver Category parameters. • Example, the top speed is given by: • Top speed = Machine top speed × Driver category % × Driver Setting%Top speed = 12 km/h × 90% × 100% = 10.8 km/h
Performance Settings. PC Atlet Service Driver ATC 2 ATC 2 ATC 2 Machine parameters. Factory set Category % Service set Individual Driver setting % Speed/Performance
Not customer definable Supervisor Driver Performance DRIVER 1 CATEGORY e. g Experienced driver Top speed = 100% Current limit = 90% - - USER 1 Top speed = 100% - - Performance settings 12 km/h * 100% = 12 km/h USER 2 Top speed = 95% - - 12 km/h * 95% = 11.4 km/h Factory settings Top speed = 12 km/t Current limit = 310 A - - - - - USER 3 Top speed = 80% - - DRIVER 2 CATEGORY e. g Moderate driver Top speed = 80% Current limit = 90% - - 9.6 km/h * 80% = 7.7 km/h USER 4 Top speed = 100% - - 9.6 km/h * 100% = 9.6 km/h DRIVER 3 CATEGORY e. g Novice driver Top speed = 50% Current limit = 80% - - USER 5 Top speed = 95% - - 6 km/h * 95% = 5.7 km/h DRIVER 4 CATEGORY e. g Extra Top speed = xx% Current limit = xx% - -