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Factors affecting the location of activities within urban areas. How urban locations change over time. MEDCs. Many factors influence the location of different land uses in an urban area. . Physical influences. Rivers and estuaries Altitude Slope angle Coasts and lakesides

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Factors affecting the location of activities within urban areas. How urban locations change over time


physical influences
Physical influences
  • Rivers and estuaries
  • Altitude
  • Slope angle
  • Coasts and lakesides
    • These will determine the value of the land
social factors
Social factors
  • Age and cultural value of buildings
  • Land ownership
  • Planning
  • Others, such as in-migration or quality of life issues
the pattern and characteristics of urban zones
The pattern and characteristics of urban zones
  • For each type of area, or zone, describe:-
    • The location
    • The land uses and functions
    • The layout and road pattern
    • The character of the buildings (size, density, height, age)
    • Processes that have caused the distinctive area to develop
    • Changes occurring


  • Inner city
  • Residential areas- low, middle and high
  • Suburbs
  • Urban-rural fringe
    • Remember to note retailing, manufacturing, services and residential
remember to include these as changes
Remember to include these as ‘changes’
  • Urban deprivation
  • Residential segregation
  • Gentrification
  • Urban renewal
  • Urban rebranding
  • Urban redevelopment
  • Counterurbanisation
  • Reurbanisation

11 (a) Outline the characteristic functions of the Central Business District (CBD). [7]

(b) How would you collect and record information about land-use in the CBD, when doing fieldwork in an urban area? [8]

(c) Assess the possible advantages and disadvantages for shops (retail outlets) of locating near the edges of urban areas rather than centrally.

  • 5 Fig. 5 shows two processes occurring within a large urban area in an MEDC.
  • (a) Name the process shown by the dotted arrow on Fig. 5. [1]
  • (b) Explain why the filtering (lower income groups moving into better housing) shown in Fig. 5 may occur. [4]
  • (c) Under what circumstances may newly-built housing be located within the existing urban area rather than on its outer edge? Support your answer from a city or cities you have studied. [5]
  • 5 Figs 4A, 4B and 4C show the population age / sex pyramids for three districts of the city of San
  • Diego, USA.
  • (a) Giving evidence from the figures, name the district of San Diego which was likely to be:
  • (i) the location of the state university;
  • (ii) a residential suburb favoured by families. [4]
  • (b) Explain briefly the economic factors which help to create residential districts of different
  • characteristics within many large urban areas. [6]

5 Fig. 5 shows the planned layout of the central area of Portland, Oregon, USA. In 2006 the city’s total population was 563 000.

(a) Compare the character of land-use on the two sides of the Willamette River. [5]

(b) New residential development is occurring at the location marked X on Fig. 5, with the conversion of a disused warehouse into high quality apartments.

Outline the possible advantages and disadvantages of living at X, using the information in the figure and your knowledge of urban areas. [5]

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6 Fig. 5 shows settlement dynamics in the city of Chicago and its region, USA, in 2005.

(a) Describe the location of the areas of decline shown in Fig. 5. [2]

(b) Compare the location of the areas of slow growth and of expansion growth in Fig. 5. [3]

(c) Suggest reasons why Chicago is growing in the areas shown in Fig. 5. [5]

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12 (a) (i) Describe briefly the character of retailing (shops) in the Central Business District (CBD) of large urban areas. [3]

(ii) Give two reasons why there may be little residential population in central areas of cities. [4]


(b) Describe one or more developments in a large urban area you have studied and suggest reasons why they occurred. [8]

(c) Assess the success of one or more attempts to provide infrastructure (such as transport, power supply and water supply) for a city you have studied. [10]


11 Study Fig. 5, which shows possible changes over time in land values in an industrial city in an MEDC.

(a) Describe the changes in the relationship between land value and distance from the CBD shown on Fig. 5. [7]

(b) Suggest reasons why land in zone S increases in value during the declining industrial stage.

Use examples to support your answer. [8]

(c) To what extent do you agree that re-urbanisation (movement back to live in inner urban areas) has much to offer to people? [10]