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Infant and Toddler Development Part 4: 18-36 Months. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Core In-Service November 18, 2008 10:00-11:30 a.m. Debbie Richardson, M.S. Parenting Assistant Extension Specialist Human Development & Family Science Oklahoma State University. Introduction.

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infant and toddler development part 4 18 36 months

Infant and Toddler DevelopmentPart 4: 18-36 Months

Oklahoma Cooperative Extension ServiceCore In-Service November 18, 2008 10:00-11:30 a.m.

Debbie Richardson, M.S.

Parenting Assistant Extension Specialist

Human Development & Family Science

Oklahoma State University

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

introduction
Introduction

Welcome

Centra Instructions

Overview of In-service

Resource Materials

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

in service objective
In-Service Objective

Extension Educators will be able to

describe growth, tasks, behaviors, and abilities of toddlers from 18 through 36 months including physical, cognitive, social and emotional development.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

18 20 months 1 years

18-20 Months(1 ½ Years)

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

18 20 months
18-20 Months

Cognition

  • Demonstrates functional use of objects toward objects.
  • Appropriately uses most common objects & toys.
  • Images & words associated with familiar objects.
  • More tool use emerging.
  • May find hidden toys/objects.
  • Nests 2-3 cups.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

18 20 months1
18-20 Months

Cognition (cont’d)

  • Recognizes self in mirror.
  • Autosymbolic play – pretends basic tasks.
  • Problem-solving through symbolic combinations.
  • Begins spontaneous symbolic play.
  • Places circles and squares in a foam board.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

18 20 months2
18-20 Months

Language

  • Vocabulary spurt.
  • Uses lots of gestures with words to get needs met (pointing, taking you by the hand).
  • Uses at least 4 different consonants in babbling words.
  • Beginning true verbal communication; words following functional & semantic relations.
  • Names an object or picture; points to pictures of familiar objects (2-5) upon request.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

18 20 months3
18-20 Months

Language (cont’d)

  • Says several single words; starting to combine words (all gone; more milk, daddy go, etc.).
  • Says “what’s that?” to elicit object names.
  • Repeats words overheard in conversation.
  • Comprehends 50+ words. Understands most words you use.
  • Can say about 15 words.
  • Points to 3 body parts on self.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

18 20 months4
18-20 Months

Social-Emotional

  • Plays alone with toys about 5+ minutes.
  • Shows toy preferences. Play varies with one toy.
  • Plays independently in company of peers.
  • Imitates another child at play.
  • Enjoys having simple stories read.
  • Fears: separation from parent, toliet, injury, strangers
  • Strong wish for independence. Sometimes says ‘no’.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

18 20 months5
18-20 Months

Gross Motor

  • Walks without using arms for balance.
  • Climbs/steps up & down stairs with some assistance.
  • Throws ball toward intended direction, up to 3 feet.
  • Walks into ball; Kicks ball forward.
  • Trots or walks fast; running stiffly.
  • Stand on one foot while hands are held.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

18 20 months6
18-20 Months

Fine Motor

  • Towers 3-4 blocks.
  • Turns single pages of cardboard book.
  • Uses spoon; feeds self pretty well.
  • Drinks from open cup independently with minimal spilling.
  • Cooperates with tooth brushing;wash & dry hands.
  • Removes simple articles of clothing without help.
  • Pulls apart snap beads.
  • Imitates a vertical stroke.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

21 24 months approaching 2 years

21-24 Months(approaching 2 years)

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

21 24 months
21-24 Months

Cognition

  • Mentally remembers object and figures out where it went.
  • Brings object from another room on request.
  • Symbolic play extends beyond child’s self.
  • Performs pretend activities on more than one person or object.
  • Follows directions; generally unable to remember rules.
  • Distinguishes between food and non-food substances.
  • Completes 3 piece form board.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

21 24 months1
21-24 Months

Cognition (cont’d)

  • Stacks & knocks down blocks; fills then turns over container to dump out.
  • Nests 3-4 cups.
  • Combines 2 objects in play.
  • Attempts to mend a broken toy.
  • Representational play – daily experiences such as playing house; plays with dolls.
  • Events short and isolated; no true sequence.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

21 24 months2
21-24 Months

Language

  • Uses sentence of 2-3 words.
  • Names 2-3 objectsor pictures.
  • Follows simple commands/instructions without gestures.
  • Repeats words.
  • May refer to objects or persons not present.
  • Identifies & points to 3-5 body parts on self when asked.
  • Uses “please” and “thank you” if prompted.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

21 24 months3
21-24 Months

Language (cont’d)

  • Beginning word combinations with meaning.
  • Uses animal sounds or names them.
  • Responds to yes/no questions with head shake.
  • Talks to self & jabbers expressively.
  • Hums, tries to sing.
  • Listens to short rhymes, finger plays.
  • Enjoys looking at picture books.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

21 24 months4
21-24 Months

Says 8-10 + words; pronunciation may be unclear.

Uses about 40-50 words. Correctly pronounces most vowels, add’l consonants. Begins to use other speech sounds. May be able to use prepositions.

Phrases & short sentences. Adding grammatical elements. Able to speak & be understood about ½ the time.

Vocabulary of several hundred words.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

21 24 months5
21-24 Months

Social-Emotional

  • Same fears continue through age 2 - separation from parent, toilet, injury, strangers – and may expand.
  • Separation anxiety may be fading, but still ‘shy’ around strangers.
  • May become increasingly enthusiastic about company of other children; engages in parallel play.
  • Make-believe play; enjoys role-playing.
  • Imitates behavior and past events.
  • Increasing attention span.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

21 24 months6
21-24 Months

Social-Emotional (cont’d)

  • Helps in simple household tasks.
  • Picks up & puts away toys on request.
  • Understanding of own autonomy; shows independent behavior; wants “my way”; likes to boss others.
  • Usually responds to correction; stops behavior.
  • Defends possessions; expresses ownership; doesn’t understand sharing.
  • Finds it difficult to wait; wants things right now.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

21 24 months7
21-24 Months

Social-Emotional (cont’d)

  • Communicates needs such as thirst, hunger, bathroom.
  • Shows sympathy to other children; may try to comfort.
  • Likes to please others; afraid of disapproval & rejection; enjoys adult attention.
  • May show anger by slapping, biting, and hitting.
  • Sometimes stubborn and defiant; says “it’s mine”, “go away”, “I don’t like it”, “no” a lot.
  • Gets angry sometimes and has temper tantrums.
  • Refers to self by name.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

21 24 months8
21-24 Months

Gross Motor

  • Good balance & coordination.
  • Steps up and down stairs without assistance.
  • Runs with better coordination, about 10 ft. w/out falling.
  • Climbs onto and down from furniture unsupported.
  • Jumps down step with 1 foot forward with assistance.
  • Jumps up 2” with both feet together.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

21 24 months9
21-24 Months

Gross Motor (cont’d)

  • Can kick ball without losing balance.
  • Tosses or rolls large ball; can throw ball into a basket.
  • Bends over to pick up toy without falling.
  • Enjoys sitting on & moving small-wheeled riding toys.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

21 24 months10
21-24 Months

Fine Motor

  • May be showing hand preference.
  • Unzips/zips large zippers.
  • Eats with a fork.
  • Places 4 stacking rings in any order.
  • Towers 6-8 blocks.
  • Browse through a book 1 page at a time.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

21 24 months11
21-24 Months

Fine Motor (cont’d)

  • Imitates horizontal stroke; scribbles spontaneously.
  • Snips paper with scissors.
  • Strings 1” bead with strong tip.
  • Attempts to put on shoes & slippers.
  • Attempts to open door by turning knob.
  • Opens cabinets, drawers, boxes.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

2 years
2 Years

Physical Markers

  • About 22 to 38 lbs. (ave. 28 lbs.)
  • Height is about ½ total height the child will attain as an adult – about 32 to 38” tall.
  • Approx. first 16 teeth have appeared.
  • Vision fully developed.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

25 30 months 2 2 years

25-30 Months(2–2 ½ Years)

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

25 30 months
25- 30 Months

Cognitive

  • Represent reality to themselves through use of symbols, mental images, words, gestures.
  • Objects & events no longer have to be present to be thought about.
  • Often fail to distinguish their point of view from others.
  • Easily captured by surface appearances.
  • Often confused about causal relations.
  • The above points last until about 6 years old.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

25 30 months1
25- 30 Months

Cognitive (cont’d)

  • Can see how things are same or different.
  • Matches objects; matches 4 colors.
  • Identifies objects by their use.
  • Recalls geometric shapes.
  • Completes 3-6 piece inset puzzle.
  • Understands the concept of ‘one’, then ‘two’.
  • Engages in simple make-believe play.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

25 30 months2
25- 30 Months

Cognitive (cont’d)

  • Can pay attention to only one thing at a time.
  • Represents/recalls events less frequently experienced or observed, particularly impressive or traumatic events.
  • Plays doctor, store, shopping, teacher, mom/dad, child.
  • Roles shift quickly; events still short & isolated.
  • Realistic props required.
  • Matches object to a picture in a book.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

25 30 months3
25- 30 Months

Cognitive (cont’d)

  • Curious what things are, what they do, how they work.
  • Begins making mechanical toys work.
  • Expands knowledge or shape/color.
  • Knows spatial concepts such as ‘in’, ‘on’, ‘under’, ‘up/down’.
  • Notices what comes “first, next, last” when routines are followed; doesn’t like changes in schedule – confusing.
  • Knows mostly where things are located in and around house.
  • Begins to reason from one situation to another similar situation.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

25 30 months 2 2 years1
25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years)

Language

  • Names 5 pictures.
  • Recognizes action in pictures.
  • Begins to use pronouns (I, you, me, we, they).
  • Says “me”, “mine”, “no” a lot.
  • May use action words such as go, run, look, eat.
  • Begins to understand many sentences.
  • Combines 3-4 words.
  • Uses 50+ words.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

25 30 months 2 2 years2
25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years)

Language (cont’d)

  • May be able to identify friend by naming.
  • Speaks clearly most of the time.
  • Uses plurals and pronouns.
  • Identifies objects or pictures by use.
  • Asks a question using inflection.
  • Gets excited about books, songs, & conversation.
  • May repeat numbers but can’t count.
  • Knows descriptive words such as ‘big’, ‘happy’

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

25 30 months 2 2 years3
25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years)

Language (cont’d)

  • Asks ‘why’, “what”, “where” questions.
  • Responds appropriately to ‘why’ questions regarding routine activities.
  • Can tell 2-3 sentences about an activity.
  • Can use 2 adjectives.
  • Knows name, age, gender.
  • Names 6-8 body parts.
  • Conversational.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

25 30 months 2 2 years4
25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years)

Social-Emotional

  • Pretends to be engaged in familiar activities or other events using toys as props.
  • May ‘help’ with simple household tasks.
  • Imitates adults & peers.
  • Fears include: loud noises, animals, dark rooms, separation from parent, large objects/machines, change in personal environment.
  • Shows affection.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

25 30 months 2 2 years5
25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years)

Social-Emotional (cont’d)

  • Greets familiar adults spontaneously.
  • Readily expresses wide range of emotion
  • Quick mood changes.
  • Sense of self; positive or negative self-worth.
  • Periods of strong independence; often stubborn, bossy, wants own way.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

25 30 months 2 2 years6
25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years)

Social-Emotional (cont’d)

  • Playing more with other children.
  • May poke, push, pull in awkward attempt to make friends.
  • Waits his/her turn.
  • Sometimes shares toys with others when prompted.
  • Starts to understand ‘mine’ vs. ‘his/hers’ or ‘yours’.
  • Doesn’t understand others have feelings.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

25 30 months 2 2 years7
25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years)

Gross Motor

  • Runs easily.
  • Stands/walks on tiptoes.
  • Stands on one foot momentarily without assistance.
  • Throws a ball 5 feet with direction.
  • Jumps off the ground; may jump broadly (across).
  • Walks up/down stairs alone, first placing both feet on each step with minimal assistance, then in a step-to-step manner without assistance.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

25 30 months 2 2 years8
25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years)

Gross Motor (cont’d)

  • Demonstrates overall coordination and balancing.
  • Stoops, squats, bends over to pick up something without falling.
  • Walks 2+ steps on a line alternating feet.
  • Pedaling.
  • Climbs well; may need help getting down.
  • Likes rough & tumble play.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

25 30 months 2 2 years9
25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years)

Fine Motor

  • Feeds self independently with utensils with little spilling.
  • Drinks from cup, eventually with one hand.
  • Takes off clothes; puts on simple clothing without help.
  • Washes/dries hands and brushes teeth with minimal assistance.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

25 30 months 2 2 years10
25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years)

Fine Motor (cont’d)

  • Separates 4 snap beads.
  • Builds tower of 3-4 then up to 9 blocks.
  • Removes cap from bottle; screws/unscrews jar lids, nuts, bolts.
  • Turns rotating handles.
  • Turns 1-3 pages of paper book.
  • Draws

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

31 36 months 2 3 years

31-36 Months(2 ½-3 Years)

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

31 36 months 2 3 years1
31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years)

Cognition

  • Engages in functional play – simple, repetitive activities.
  • Gender identity develops.
  • Begins to understand big & little; relationship between part & whole (door of car, nose of animal).
  • Selects toy hidden in correct hand when put behind back.
  • Points/names a color; may recognize 3 colors.
  • Matches 3 shapes; stacks 4-5 rings in order.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

31 36 months 2 3 years2
31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years)

Cognition (cont’d)

  • Counts 3 objects.
  • Completes simple puzzles.
  • Makes mechanical toys work.
  • Continues pretend activities.
  • Play starts having a sequence; sequences evolve and are not planned; events are not isolated.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

31 36 months 2 3 years3
31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years)

Cognition (cont’d)

  • Compensatory stories: re-enactment of experiences, events with new outcomes.
  • Associative play: loosely organized around a common activity, shared interests & materials.
  • Reasons from effect back to cause.
  • Understands before, after, now, soon, later
  • Expanding attention span – up to about 10 min.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

31 36 months 2 3 years4
31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years)

Language

  • Very talkative. Vocabulary of many hundreds of words (200-800).
  • Speech is more accurate; may still leave off ending sounds, stumble or stutter when trying to express self.
  • Recognizes/identifies most common objects & pictures.
  • Understands most sentences.
  • Uses 3-5 word phrases/sentences consistently.
  • Answers what, where, or yes/no questions.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

31 36 months 2 3 years5
31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years)

Language (cont’d)

  • Distinguishes on, in, under, big, little.
  • Starts using past tense, referring to future.
  • Listens attentively to stories & books but doesn’t like if you skip or change a word.
  • Uses words differently at different times.
  • Repeats words and sounds.
  • Uses words to express fears and insecurities by telling others “don’t look”, “don’t laugh”, etc.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

31 36 months 2 3 years6
31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years)

Social-Emotional

  • Similar fears as 2 - 2 ½; some decrease in separation anxiety; fears imaginary things, unusual or dramatic appearances in other people.
  • Begins to develop real friendships; may develop imaginary friend.
  • Increasingly likes having peers and other adults around.
  • Separates easily from caregiver in familiar surroundings.
  • Imitates behavior of others.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

31 36 months 2 3 years7
31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years)

Social-Emotional (cont’d)

  • Demonstrates increasing independence; defiant behavior.
  • Follows simple rules, suggestions.
  • Makes simple choices.
  • Enjoys playing alone, but near other children.
  • Can play cooperatively for short periods.
  • Shares & take turns sometimes, but still does not cooperate well.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

31 36 months 2 3 years8
31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years)

Social-Emotional (cont’d)

  • Participates in circle games.
  • Acts out social encounters through play activities.
  • Expresses wide range of emotions.
  • Objects to minor changes in routines.
  • Realizes own skills.
  • Acts to please adults.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

31 36 months 2 3 years9
31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years)

Social-Emotional (cont’d)

  • Helps others.
  • Seeks assistance.
  • Directs others.
  • Enjoys making others laugh and being silly.
  • Spends a great deal of time watching & observing.
  • Enjoys hearing stories about self & playing ‘house’.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

31 36 months 2 3 years10
31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years)

Gross Motor

  • Throws ball overhand; catches a large ball.
  • Jumps over a line.
  • Ascends/descends stairs alternating feet without help.
  • May swing leg to kick ball; more accurate kicking.
  • Rides on tricycle using pedals.
  • Can briefly balance and hop on one foot.
  • Enjoys fast moving activities.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

31 36 months 2 3 years11
31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years)

Fine Motor

  • Holds pencil in writing position. Scribbles spontaneously.
  • Makes or copies lines & circles with pencil/crayon.
  • Turns one page at a time.
  • Builds 3 block bridge with demonstration.
  • Might use one hand more frequently than another.
  • Undoes some buttons, laces, zippers.
  • Cuts across 6” piece of paper with scissors.
  • Easily places small objects in a small opening.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

3 years
3 Years

Physical Markers

  • Gained about 4-5 lbs. and grown about 2-3” in last year.
  • About 25 to 44 lbs. and 34 to 43”.
  • Develops taller, leaner appearance.
  • Has all 20 primary teeth.
  • Sleeps 10-12 hours per night plus daytime nap.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

toilet learning

Toilet Learning

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

toilet learning1
Toilet Learning

About 18-20 mos. - Indicates discomfort over soiled diapers verbally or with gestures.

About 2 yrs. - May be psychologically ready for toilet learning. Begins to gain some control of bowels & bladder.

About 28 mo. - Indicates need to use the bathroom.

About 33 mo. - Distinguishes urination & bowel movements.

About 3 yrs. - May have daytime & possibly nighttime control over bowel & bladder functions.

About 36-38 mos. - May have full control, use toilet on own. Boys often do not complete toilet learning until 3 ½ (42 mo.).

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

wrap up
Wrap-up
  • Questions
  • Discussion
  • In-service evaluation
  • Follow-up
  • Next session Nov. 25: Early brain development, learning, and mental health

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

references
References

In addition to the provided resource materials listed on the in-service agenda, various textbooks and other reference materials used for this presentation are available upon request.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

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