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Infant and Toddler Development Part 4: 18-36 Months
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Infant and Toddler Development Part 4: 18-36 Months

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  1. Infant and Toddler DevelopmentPart 4: 18-36 Months Oklahoma Cooperative Extension ServiceCore In-Service November 18, 2008 10:00-11:30 a.m. Debbie Richardson, M.S. Parenting Assistant Extension Specialist Human Development & Family Science Oklahoma State University 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  2. Introduction Welcome Centra Instructions Overview of In-service Resource Materials 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  3. In-Service Objective Extension Educators will be able to describe growth, tasks, behaviors, and abilities of toddlers from 18 through 36 months including physical, cognitive, social and emotional development. 11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

  4. 18-20 Months(1 ½ Years) 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  5. 18-20 Months Cognition • Demonstrates functional use of objects toward objects. • Appropriately uses most common objects & toys. • Images & words associated with familiar objects. • More tool use emerging. • May find hidden toys/objects. • Nests 2-3 cups. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  6. 18-20 Months Cognition (cont’d) • Recognizes self in mirror. • Autosymbolic play – pretends basic tasks. • Problem-solving through symbolic combinations. • Begins spontaneous symbolic play. • Places circles and squares in a foam board. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  7. 18-20 Months Language • Vocabulary spurt. • Uses lots of gestures with words to get needs met (pointing, taking you by the hand). • Uses at least 4 different consonants in babbling words. • Beginning true verbal communication; words following functional & semantic relations. • Names an object or picture; points to pictures of familiar objects (2-5) upon request. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  8. 18-20 Months Language (cont’d) • Says several single words; starting to combine words (all gone; more milk, daddy go, etc.). • Says “what’s that?” to elicit object names. • Repeats words overheard in conversation. • Comprehends 50+ words. Understands most words you use. • Can say about 15 words. • Points to 3 body parts on self. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  9. 18-20 Months Social-Emotional • Plays alone with toys about 5+ minutes. • Shows toy preferences. Play varies with one toy. • Plays independently in company of peers. • Imitates another child at play. • Enjoys having simple stories read. • Fears: separation from parent, toliet, injury, strangers • Strong wish for independence. Sometimes says ‘no’. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  10. 18-20 Months Gross Motor • Walks without using arms for balance. • Climbs/steps up & down stairs with some assistance. • Throws ball toward intended direction, up to 3 feet. • Walks into ball; Kicks ball forward. • Trots or walks fast; running stiffly. • Stand on one foot while hands are held. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  11. 18-20 Months Fine Motor • Towers 3-4 blocks. • Turns single pages of cardboard book. • Uses spoon; feeds self pretty well. • Drinks from open cup independently with minimal spilling. • Cooperates with tooth brushing;wash & dry hands. • Removes simple articles of clothing without help. • Pulls apart snap beads. • Imitates a vertical stroke. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  12. 21-24 Months(approaching 2 years) 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  13. 21-24 Months Cognition • Mentally remembers object and figures out where it went. • Brings object from another room on request. • Symbolic play extends beyond child’s self. • Performs pretend activities on more than one person or object. • Follows directions; generally unable to remember rules. • Distinguishes between food and non-food substances. • Completes 3 piece form board. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  14. 21-24 Months Cognition (cont’d) • Stacks & knocks down blocks; fills then turns over container to dump out. • Nests 3-4 cups. • Combines 2 objects in play. • Attempts to mend a broken toy. • Representational play – daily experiences such as playing house; plays with dolls. • Events short and isolated; no true sequence. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  15. 21-24 Months Language • Uses sentence of 2-3 words. • Names 2-3 objectsor pictures. • Follows simple commands/instructions without gestures. • Repeats words. • May refer to objects or persons not present. • Identifies & points to 3-5 body parts on self when asked. • Uses “please” and “thank you” if prompted. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  16. 21-24 Months Language (cont’d) • Beginning word combinations with meaning. • Uses animal sounds or names them. • Responds to yes/no questions with head shake. • Talks to self & jabbers expressively. • Hums, tries to sing. • Listens to short rhymes, finger plays. • Enjoys looking at picture books. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  17. 21-24 Months Says 8-10 + words; pronunciation may be unclear. Uses about 40-50 words. Correctly pronounces most vowels, add’l consonants. Begins to use other speech sounds. May be able to use prepositions. Phrases & short sentences. Adding grammatical elements. Able to speak & be understood about ½ the time. Vocabulary of several hundred words. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  18. 21-24 Months Social-Emotional • Same fears continue through age 2 - separation from parent, toilet, injury, strangers – and may expand. • Separation anxiety may be fading, but still ‘shy’ around strangers. • May become increasingly enthusiastic about company of other children; engages in parallel play. • Make-believe play; enjoys role-playing. • Imitates behavior and past events. • Increasing attention span. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  19. 21-24 Months Social-Emotional (cont’d) • Helps in simple household tasks. • Picks up & puts away toys on request. • Understanding of own autonomy; shows independent behavior; wants “my way”; likes to boss others. • Usually responds to correction; stops behavior. • Defends possessions; expresses ownership; doesn’t understand sharing. • Finds it difficult to wait; wants things right now. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  20. 21-24 Months Social-Emotional (cont’d) • Communicates needs such as thirst, hunger, bathroom. • Shows sympathy to other children; may try to comfort. • Likes to please others; afraid of disapproval & rejection; enjoys adult attention. • May show anger by slapping, biting, and hitting. • Sometimes stubborn and defiant; says “it’s mine”, “go away”, “I don’t like it”, “no” a lot. • Gets angry sometimes and has temper tantrums. • Refers to self by name. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  21. 21-24 Months Gross Motor • Good balance & coordination. • Steps up and down stairs without assistance. • Runs with better coordination, about 10 ft. w/out falling. • Climbs onto and down from furniture unsupported. • Jumps down step with 1 foot forward with assistance. • Jumps up 2” with both feet together. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  22. 21-24 Months Gross Motor (cont’d) • Can kick ball without losing balance. • Tosses or rolls large ball; can throw ball into a basket. • Bends over to pick up toy without falling. • Enjoys sitting on & moving small-wheeled riding toys. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  23. 21-24 Months Fine Motor • May be showing hand preference. • Unzips/zips large zippers. • Eats with a fork. • Places 4 stacking rings in any order. • Towers 6-8 blocks. • Browse through a book 1 page at a time. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  24. 21-24 Months Fine Motor (cont’d) • Imitates horizontal stroke; scribbles spontaneously. • Snips paper with scissors. • Strings 1” bead with strong tip. • Attempts to put on shoes & slippers. • Attempts to open door by turning knob. • Opens cabinets, drawers, boxes. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  25. 2 Years Physical Markers • About 22 to 38 lbs. (ave. 28 lbs.) • Height is about ½ total height the child will attain as an adult – about 32 to 38” tall. • Approx. first 16 teeth have appeared. • Vision fully developed. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  26. 25-30 Months(2–2 ½ Years) 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  27. 25- 30 Months Cognitive • Represent reality to themselves through use of symbols, mental images, words, gestures. • Objects & events no longer have to be present to be thought about. • Often fail to distinguish their point of view from others. • Easily captured by surface appearances. • Often confused about causal relations. • The above points last until about 6 years old. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  28. 25- 30 Months Cognitive (cont’d) • Can see how things are same or different. • Matches objects; matches 4 colors. • Identifies objects by their use. • Recalls geometric shapes. • Completes 3-6 piece inset puzzle. • Understands the concept of ‘one’, then ‘two’. • Engages in simple make-believe play. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  29. 25- 30 Months Cognitive (cont’d) • Can pay attention to only one thing at a time. • Represents/recalls events less frequently experienced or observed, particularly impressive or traumatic events. • Plays doctor, store, shopping, teacher, mom/dad, child. • Roles shift quickly; events still short & isolated. • Realistic props required. • Matches object to a picture in a book. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  30. 25- 30 Months Cognitive (cont’d) • Curious what things are, what they do, how they work. • Begins making mechanical toys work. • Expands knowledge or shape/color. • Knows spatial concepts such as ‘in’, ‘on’, ‘under’, ‘up/down’. • Notices what comes “first, next, last” when routines are followed; doesn’t like changes in schedule – confusing. • Knows mostly where things are located in and around house. • Begins to reason from one situation to another similar situation. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  31. 25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years) Language • Names 5 pictures. • Recognizes action in pictures. • Begins to use pronouns (I, you, me, we, they). • Says “me”, “mine”, “no” a lot. • May use action words such as go, run, look, eat. • Begins to understand many sentences. • Combines 3-4 words. • Uses 50+ words. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  32. 25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years) Language (cont’d) • May be able to identify friend by naming. • Speaks clearly most of the time. • Uses plurals and pronouns. • Identifies objects or pictures by use. • Asks a question using inflection. • Gets excited about books, songs, & conversation. • May repeat numbers but can’t count. • Knows descriptive words such as ‘big’, ‘happy’ 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  33. 25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years) Language (cont’d) • Asks ‘why’, “what”, “where” questions. • Responds appropriately to ‘why’ questions regarding routine activities. • Can tell 2-3 sentences about an activity. • Can use 2 adjectives. • Knows name, age, gender. • Names 6-8 body parts. • Conversational. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  34. 25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years) Social-Emotional • Pretends to be engaged in familiar activities or other events using toys as props. • May ‘help’ with simple household tasks. • Imitates adults & peers. • Fears include: loud noises, animals, dark rooms, separation from parent, large objects/machines, change in personal environment. • Shows affection. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  35. 25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years) Social-Emotional (cont’d) • Greets familiar adults spontaneously. • Readily expresses wide range of emotion • Quick mood changes. • Sense of self; positive or negative self-worth. • Periods of strong independence; often stubborn, bossy, wants own way. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  36. 25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years) Social-Emotional (cont’d) • Playing more with other children. • May poke, push, pull in awkward attempt to make friends. • Waits his/her turn. • Sometimes shares toys with others when prompted. • Starts to understand ‘mine’ vs. ‘his/hers’ or ‘yours’. • Doesn’t understand others have feelings. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  37. 25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years) Gross Motor • Runs easily. • Stands/walks on tiptoes. • Stands on one foot momentarily without assistance. • Throws a ball 5 feet with direction. • Jumps off the ground; may jump broadly (across). • Walks up/down stairs alone, first placing both feet on each step with minimal assistance, then in a step-to-step manner without assistance. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  38. 25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years) Gross Motor (cont’d) • Demonstrates overall coordination and balancing. • Stoops, squats, bends over to pick up something without falling. • Walks 2+ steps on a line alternating feet. • Pedaling. • Climbs well; may need help getting down. • Likes rough & tumble play. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  39. 25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years) Fine Motor • Feeds self independently with utensils with little spilling. • Drinks from cup, eventually with one hand. • Takes off clothes; puts on simple clothing without help. • Washes/dries hands and brushes teeth with minimal assistance. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  40. 25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years) Fine Motor (cont’d) • Separates 4 snap beads. • Builds tower of 3-4 then up to 9 blocks. • Removes cap from bottle; screws/unscrews jar lids, nuts, bolts. • Turns rotating handles. • Turns 1-3 pages of paper book. • Draws 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  41. 31-36 Months(2 ½-3 Years) 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  42. 31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years) Cognition • Engages in functional play – simple, repetitive activities. • Gender identity develops. • Begins to understand big & little; relationship between part & whole (door of car, nose of animal). • Selects toy hidden in correct hand when put behind back. • Points/names a color; may recognize 3 colors. • Matches 3 shapes; stacks 4-5 rings in order. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  43. 31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years) Cognition (cont’d) • Counts 3 objects. • Completes simple puzzles. • Makes mechanical toys work. • Continues pretend activities. • Play starts having a sequence; sequences evolve and are not planned; events are not isolated. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  44. 31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years) Cognition (cont’d) • Compensatory stories: re-enactment of experiences, events with new outcomes. • Associative play: loosely organized around a common activity, shared interests & materials. • Reasons from effect back to cause. • Understands before, after, now, soon, later • Expanding attention span – up to about 10 min. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  45. 31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years) Language • Very talkative. Vocabulary of many hundreds of words (200-800). • Speech is more accurate; may still leave off ending sounds, stumble or stutter when trying to express self. • Recognizes/identifies most common objects & pictures. • Understands most sentences. • Uses 3-5 word phrases/sentences consistently. • Answers what, where, or yes/no questions. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  46. 31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years) Language (cont’d) • Distinguishes on, in, under, big, little. • Starts using past tense, referring to future. • Listens attentively to stories & books but doesn’t like if you skip or change a word. • Uses words differently at different times. • Repeats words and sounds. • Uses words to express fears and insecurities by telling others “don’t look”, “don’t laugh”, etc. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  47. 31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years) Social-Emotional • Similar fears as 2 - 2 ½; some decrease in separation anxiety; fears imaginary things, unusual or dramatic appearances in other people. • Begins to develop real friendships; may develop imaginary friend. • Increasingly likes having peers and other adults around. • Separates easily from caregiver in familiar surroundings. • Imitates behavior of others. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  48. 31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years) Social-Emotional (cont’d) • Demonstrates increasing independence; defiant behavior. • Follows simple rules, suggestions. • Makes simple choices. • Enjoys playing alone, but near other children. • Can play cooperatively for short periods. • Shares & take turns sometimes, but still does not cooperate well. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  49. 31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years) Social-Emotional (cont’d) • Participates in circle games. • Acts out social encounters through play activities. • Expresses wide range of emotions. • Objects to minor changes in routines. • Realizes own skills. • Acts to please adults. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson

  50. 31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years) Social-Emotional (cont’d) • Helps others. • Seeks assistance. • Directs others. • Enjoys making others laugh and being silly. • Spends a great deal of time watching & observing. • Enjoys hearing stories about self & playing ‘house’. 11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson