Total War Dresden after firebombing
Today’s Agenda • Total War Slide Show • Homework • Unit Test on WWII this Monday • Includes all of Ch 12, 13.1 & 13.3, Total War wkst.
What is Total War? • Make any sacrifice in order to achieve victory • Direct all resources and economy towards war effort • No distinction made between soldiers and civilians • Civilians specifically targeted Victims in Nanking
Why Was WWII a Total War? • Over 35 million civilians were killed • 13,000 civilians died every day • Both the Allies and Axis Powers specifically targeted civilian cities. • Demoralize civilian population • Destroy capability of enemy to make war materials Dresden after firebombing
Describe Guernica as an example of “Total War.” • Spanish Civil War in progress, Germany supported Franco • Guernica was cultural center of Basques, no military value • April 26, 1937, German bombers dropped high explosive and incendiary bombs on the city • Fires burned for three days, 70% of the town was destroyed • 1,600 civilians killed or wounded Above: actual photo from Guernica; below: Picasso’s painting
Guernica Capture of Peter Jennings introducing clip on Guernica
Why is the ”The Blitz” an example of Total War? • By September 1940, Hitler lost the Battle of Britain • Could not invade England, but could still bomb London • Believed if enough civilians killed would force government to make peace • Began on September 7, 1940, lasted 76 nights • 43,000 British civilians were killed More random firebombing pics
The Blitz Capture: peaceful London skyline to introduce “The Blitz”
When, Where, and Why did the Allies decide to bomb German/ Japanese cities? • Casablanca Conference • January 1943 • Allies decided to target civilian cities in order to undermine the German morale and destroy Germany’s ability to wage war • Bombed many German cities, including Hamburg, Cologne, Dresden, and Berlin. Roosevelt and Churchill at Casablanca
Describe the Bombing of Hamburg • Bombing of Hamburg • July 1943 • Bombers dropped incendiary and high explosive bombs • Destroyed over 60% of the city, killed 50,000 civilians Intact statue overlooks destroyed Dresden
Bombing of Hamburg Capture: Peter Jennings introduces Bombing of Hamburg
Describe the bombing of Dresden. • Bombing of Dresden • February 1945 • cultural and artistic center of Germany, population of 1,000,000 • Bombers started gigantic firestorm, burned for 7 days • Unknown how many civilians were killed, estimates range from 35,000 to 250,000 • “You needn't worry about bombs, by the way. Dresden is an open city. It is undefended, and contains no war industries or troop concentrations of any importance.” - Kurt Vonnegut Jr. Random photos from Dresden
Bombing of Dresden. Capture: Dresden being firebombed
Describe the fire bombing of Tokyo • March 1945 • Used incendiary bombs to start huge firestorms • Most of the buildings were made of wood, fire spread very quickly • Killed 80,000 civilians, left over 100,000 homeless Tokyo after firebombing
"Everything combustible would be consumed, …In some cases the heat would soften the asphalt in the streets, so that fire equipment mired down and was lost to the flames. Water sprayed on the fire would simply vaporize; glass panes would soften and drip from metal window frames. Here and there, incredibly, concrete melted. No living thing could survive in such an atmosphere." • Was so successful that the U.S. ordered fire bombings for almost every other major Japanese city • Led the U.S. to believe that Japan could be defeated without an invasion
Firebombing Tokyo Capture: Tokyo firebombing
What events led the US to decide to drop the Atomic bomb? • Japanese atrocities • Nanking • Japanese willingness to fight to the death • A land invasion could cost many American lives Japanese killing Chinese with bayonets
Rape of Nanking Capture: survivor of Nanking, 1937
Describe the Japanese actions in Nanking • Japan entered Chinese city 12/13/1937 • Killed over 300,000 • Soldiers immediately executed • Civilians beheaded, shot, bayoneted, hung, and burned alive • 20,000 women were raped • After they were raped, they were tortured, killed, and their body mutilated • Victims included • young girls, elderly women, nuns, and pregnant women Above and below: brutalized victims of Japanese atrocities in Nanking
Desperate Japan Capture: teenage Japanese soldiers
Describe Japanese Willingness to Fight to the Death • Believed emperor was a god • Public schools taught Japanese students to die for emperor • Japanese propaganda claimed Americans killed babies, murdered civilians • Japanese soldiers would not surrender at Iwo Jima or Okinawa • Kamikaze • Planes were packed with explosives and intentionally crashed into battleships • Desperate defense against American battleships closing in on mainland Japan • Killed 5,000 Americans in Okinawa Kamikaze plane crashes
Saipan Capture: deck of a US ship hit by kamikaze
Kamikaze Capture: clip on kamikaze
Manhattan Project Presentation Oppenheimer displays photo of atomic blast
What is the Manhattan Project? • Secret government operation to develop 1st nuclear weapon • Initiated after letter from Einstein and Szilard warned FDR of Nazi initiatives • Headed by Robert Oppenheimer • Involved over 130 thousand scientists, physicists, engineers, etc. • Based in Los Alamos, NM • Trinity- first successful detonation "Now I am become death, the destroyer of worlds" (line from Hindu scripture quoted by Robert Oppenheimer when he observed the test.) Photos are of tower in New Mexico and experimental blast
How does nuclear energy work? • fission, or 'splitting' of an atom, • Split atom strike atoms and starts chain reaction • Results in release of tremendous amounts of energy Trinitite. The bomb melted the sand into this greenish glass. It was named trinitite after Trinity.
August 6, 1945 Enola Gay dropped atomic bomb on Hiroshima The blast killed at least 70,000 people Over the years many have died from radiation poisoning Describe the bombing of Hiroshima.
“The homes of many of us have been destroyed, and the lives of old and young have been taken. There's scarcely a household that hasn't been struck to the heart. Why, in all conscience, should these be the ones to suffer?.....Are these our soldiers? Are these our fighters? Why should they be sacrificed? I shall tell you why. Because this is not only a war of soldiers in uniform, it is a war of the people, and it must be fought not only on the battlefield but in the cities and in the villages, in the factories, and on the farms, in the home and in the heart of every man, woman, and child who loves freedom. This is a peoples war, it is our war, we are the fighters, fight it, then. Fight it with all that is in us. And may God defend the right.”– Closing sermon of Mrs. Miniver
The explosion created a supersonic shock wave which was responsible for destroying most of the buildings in the blast zone. Fully half of the bomb's released energy was released in the form of this wind, which spread out at 440 meters per second (1600 km/hr or 1000 miles/hr; the speed of sound is 330 meters per second). It not only knocked things down, it also filled the air with debris. The section of concrete wall below has numerous glass shards embedded in it, even though it was 2200 meters (one and a half miles) from the hypocenter, and sheltered from the blast by a low hill.
Who has nuclear weapons today? • United States = 9300 weapons • Russia= 9500 weapons • Britain=185 weapons • France=460 weapons • Red China=400 weapons • North Korea = as many as 6 • India= 30 weapons • Pakistan = 15 weapons • Israel = 75 and 130 nukes • Ukraine, Kazakhstan, South Africa have abandoned their nuclear programs