Nationalism in early 1900’s: was threatening Austro-Hungarian Empire was destroying Ottoman Empire
Austria gives Serbia ultimatum Austria declares war on Serbia Russia assembles troops on Austria & Germany border Germany Declares war on Russia & France The Start of War Assassination of Archduke June 1914
The Causes of WWI • World War I starts (15 minutes)
Journal #1 • Analyze 2 significant factors which made Europe unstable before World War I and war inevitable. • Explain the cause & effect of each factor • 2 well thought out paragraphs • Turn in when complete….
Reasons WWI Began • Why World War I began: • Serbia wanted to unite their country • Austro-Hungarian Empire fought for survival • Russia felt obligated to support the Slavs in Serbia • Germany pushed Austro-Hungary & was aggressive • Ottoman Empire was crumbling
The Schlieffen Plan • What: German military plan for 2-front war • named after General Schlieffen, established 1905 • Strategy: A quick attack on France through Belgiumfollowed by an attack on Russia • Speed was critical for plan’s success • France must fall quickly…. General Alfred Schlieffen
1914 The Schlieffen Plan
Great Britain • Outraged over attack on Belgium, England declares war on Germany (August 1914)
The Schlieffen Plan worked well at first: swept through Belgium into France Battle of the Marne(Sept. 1914) Over 2 million troops fight France & Germany 500,000 wounded/killed Germany forced to retreat Key battle of World War I
Western & Eastern Front • STALEMATEoccurred onWestern Front • Develops into Trench Warfare • Russia attacks on Eastern Front • Russia’s army is very poorly equipped • Soldier’s are not motivated and eventually rebel (refuse to fight)
TRENCH FOOT This was an infection of the feet caused by cold, wet and insanitary conditions. In the trenches men stood for hours on end in waterlogged trenches without being able to remove wet socks or boots. The feet would gradually go numb and the skin would turn red or blue. If untreated, trench foot could turn gangrenous and result in amputation.
New “Modern” War • Poison Gas • Machine Gun • Airplanes • Tanks • Submarines
WWI Summary • World War I was supposed to be short & glorious • It turned into slow, deadly Trench Warfare • Stalemate lasted for years on Western Front • Eastern Front more mobile but demonstrated a deteriorating Russia • Modern Warfare was deadly • Industrialization had forever changed the nature of war