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The Atmosphere. Earth’s Atmosphere and Distribution of Earth’s Heat on Land and Water. EQ: How do air pressure and temperature vary in the atmosphere?. Standards S6E3b ; S6E4a,b; S6E5j; S6E6a. The Air Around You. Atmosphere Chapter 12 Section One. The Air Around You.

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the atmosphere

The Atmosphere

Earth’s Atmosphere and Distribution of Earth’s Heat on Land and Water

eq how do air pressure and temperature vary in the atmosphere

EQ: How do air pressure and temperature vary in the atmosphere?

Standards

S6E3b; S6E4a,b; S6E5j; S6E6a

the air around you
The Air Around You

Atmosphere

Chapter 12

Section One

the air around you1
The Air Around You
  • Weather is the condition of Earth’s atmosphere at a particular time.
  • Atmosphere: the layer of gases that surrounds Earth
  • Earth’s atmosphere is composed of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases.
  • Earth’s atmosphere contains oxygen and other gases that living things need to survive.
composition of the atmosphere
Composition of the Atmosphere
  • Nitrogen
    • Makes up ¾ of the air we breathe.
  • Oxygen
    • 2nd most abundant gas in the atmosphere
    • Plant and animals take oxygen from their surroundings and use it to release energy from food in a cellular process.
    • Is needed for fire to burn
  • Ozone
    • Form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms in each molecule
composition of the atmosphere1
Composition of the Atmosphere
  • Carbon dioxide
    • Is present in small amounts in the atmosphere
    • Essential to life
    • Animals produce carbon dioxide
    • Burning fossil fuels increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
  • Water Vapor
    • Water in the form of a gas
    • Produces clouds
importance of the atmosphere
Importance of the Atmosphere
  • Earth’s atmosphere makes conditions on Earth suitable for living things.
  • Traps energy from the sun which keeps most of the Earth’s surface warm.
  • Water exist in liquid form.
air pressure
Air Pressure

Chapter 12

Section Two

air pressure1
Air Pressure
  • Properties of air:
    • Consists of atoms and molecules that have mass
    • Mass
    • Density
    • Pressure
  • Pressure is the force pushing on an area or surface.
  • Air pressure is the result of the weight of a column of air pushing down on an area.
air pressure2
Air Pressure
  • How are mass and air pressure related?
    • The weight of air in the atmosphere causes air pressure.
  • So why doesn’t air pressure crush objects?
    • The reason is that the molecules of air push in all directions. The air pushing down on an object is balanced by the air pushing up on the object.
  • How does the density of air affect air pressure?
    • Denser air exerts more pressure than less dense air.
measuring air pressure
Measuring Air Pressure
  • An instrument used to measure air pressure is a barometer.
  • Two kinds of barometers
    • Aneroid
    • Mercury
  • Unit of Air Pressure
    • 2 different units of measurement
      • Inches of mercury
      • millibars
how does altitude affect air pressure
How does altitude affect air pressure?
  • Altitude, or elevation, is the distance above seal level.
  • Air pressure decreases as altitude increases.
    • Less oxygen molecules to breathe at higher altitudes.
  • As air pressure decreases, so does density.
altitude affects air pressure
Altitude Affects Air Pressure
  • Sea level air has the weight of the whole atmosphere pressing on it.
  • So air pressure is greater at sea level.
  • The air near the top of the atmosphere has less weight pressing on it , and thus has lower air pressure.
altitude also affects density
Altitude Also Affects Density
  • As you go through the atmosphere, the density of the air decreases.
  • This means the gas molecules that make up the atmosphere are farther apart at high altitudes than they are at sea level.
  • The air contains 21% oxygen.
  • There are fewer oxygen molecules at high altitudes.
layers of the atmosphere
Layers of the Atmosphere
  • Key Concepts
    • What are the four main layers of the atmosphere?
    • What are the characteristics of each layer?
what are the layers of the atmosphere
What are the layers of the atmosphere?
  • Scientists divide Earth’s atmosphere into four main layers classified according to changes in temperature.
    • Troposphere
    • Stratosphere (Ozone layer)
    • Mesosphere
    • Thermosphere
      • Ionosphere
      • Exosphere
troposphere
Troposphere
  • We live in the troposphere.
  • All weather and water vapor are in this layer.
  • Gets colder as you go up.
  • Clouds
  • 0-18 km
stratosphere
Stratosphere
  • 2nd layer of the atmosphere
  • Temperature s get warmer are you go up.
  • 12 – 50 km
  • Contains the Ozone layer.
    • Absorbs ultraviolet radiation
mesosphere
Mesosphere
  • Protects Earth’s surface from being hit by meteoroids.
  • Coldest region of atmosphere
  • 50 – 80 km
thermosphere
Thermosphere
  • Outermost layer of Earth’s atmosphere
  • Above 80 km
  • Air is thin, it is very hot because the sun strikes this layer first
  • Divided into 2 layers:
    • Ionosphere, lower layer of thermosphere
      • 80 – 400 km
      • Radio waves bounce back to Earth’s surface
    • Exosphere, outer layer of thermosphere
      • 400 – 1000 km
      • Artificial satellites orbit here
energy from the sun
Energy from the Sun
  • Kinds of energy from the sun
    • Visible light
    • Infrared radiation
    • Ultraviolet radiation
      • Can cause sunburns, skin cancer, and eye damage
    • When Earth’s surface is heated, it radiates most of the energy back into the atmosphere as infrared radiation.
    • Greenhouse effect
      • Process by which a blanket of gases around the Earth that hold heat in the atmosphere.
heat transfer
Heat Transfer
  • Three forms of heat transfer:
    • Radiation
      • Direct transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
        • Ex. – heat from the sun travels by radiation
      • Conduction
        • Direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance by direct contact.
          • Ex. – pot on a stove
      • Convection
        • The transfer of heat by the movement of fluid
          • Ex. – Upward movement of warm air and the downward movement of cool air form convection currents.
winds
Winds
  • A wind is the horizontal movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure.
  • Winds are
    • Caused by the unequal heating of the earth.
    • Cool, dense air flows under warm, less dense air.
  • Measuring wind
    • Speed (anemometer)
    • Direction (wind vane)
  • Wind-chill factor – the increased cooling a wind can cause.
local winds
Local Winds
  • Winds that blow over short distances.
  • Caused by the unequal heating of Earth’s surface within a small area.
    • During the day, land warms up faster than water.
    • At night, the land cools faster than water.
local winds1
Local Winds
  • Sea Breeze
    • Local wind that blows from an ocean or lake.
local winds2
Local Winds
  • Land Breeze
    • The flow of air from land to a body of water.
global winds
Global Winds
  • Winds that blow steadily from specific directions over long distances
  • Created by unequal heating of Earth’s surface.
  • Occur over a large area
  • Global convection currents
    • Produced by temperature differences between the equator and the poles
  • Coriolis Effect
    • Earth’s rotation makes winds curve
global wind belts
Global Wind Belts
  • Major wind belts
    • Trade winds
    • Polar easterlies
    • Prevailing westerlies
atmosphere review
Atmosphere Review
  • Can you answer the following questions:
    • What are the main gases in the atmosphere?
    • Name the 6 layers of the atmosphere?
    • What are 3 forms of heat transfer?
    • What causes wind?
    • What are the major global winds?