Emergency Interfacing: Military and Civil Communications in Crisis Response Scenarios - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

hall-jarvis
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Emergency Interfacing: Military and Civil Communications in Crisis Response Scenarios PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Emergency Interfacing: Military and Civil Communications in Crisis Response Scenarios

play fullscreen
1 / 33
Download Presentation
Emergency Interfacing: Military and Civil Communications in Crisis Response Scenarios
160 Views
Download Presentation

Emergency Interfacing: Military and Civil Communications in Crisis Response Scenarios

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Emergency Interfacing:Military and Civil Communications in Crisis Response Scenarios Applied CIS Technology Branch CIS Division NATO Command, Control & Consultation Agency pcs@nc3a.info

  2. Crisis Response Scenarios • Crisis scenarios where a response is required • Natural disasters • Flooding (Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland, UK) • Earthquakes (Italy, Turkey, USA) • Hurricanes and Ice storms (Canada, USA) • Non-natural disasters • Transport crashes (Canada, Germany, Norway) • Fires (Germany, Netherlands) • Terrorism • Crisis Response Operations • ‘Traditional’ military CRO • Peace-keeping, peace-support, Operations Other than War etc

  3. Military and Civil Communications • In all previous disaster scenarios the military has been involved to support civil emergency services in a co-ordinated manner • In ‘traditional’ CRO, military works with NGOs, local services etc • Communications between military and civil emergency services are vital • Both have effective individual communications systems - the interface between is vital

  4. Effect of Disasters on Telecoms • Area affected • Natural - widespread • Man-made - limited • Communications Affected • Fixed line • Congestion and/or disruption • Radio • Congestion and/or disruption • Loss of power • Loss of infrastructure • Priority mechanisms utilised occasionally • From Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, Civil Communications Planning Committee (N/EAPC U)

  5. Emergency Telecoms: What’s needed • Communications system requirements: • Rapidly deployable • Easy to use • no time for operator training • Self supporting • Interconnected to other networks • High capacity • Congestion is a recurring problem in many emergency scenarios

  6. Military Use; Civil Technology Pictures courtesy of DERA / Qinetiq (UK)

  7. GSM & GPS • GSM data services support useful services for Emergency Operations • Position reporting • Status monitoring COTS GSM for Emergency Scenarios GSM Piconode • Standalone GSM infrastructure • BTS, BSC, MSC, NMS • Deployable - 20 kg, 0.6 m3 • Can be connected to other networks • GSM, PSTN, PABX • Satellite backhaul • Tactical Military • Used by UK in Kosovo GSM is useful, but no security Not just GSM, any digital mobile radio … like TETRA

  8. Military Position Reporting, Civil Bearer C2PC Common Operation Picture software operating over a TETRA network

  9. C2PC with TETRA

  10. ITSI: 12... ITSI: 12... ITSI: 12... End to end encrypted data services • SFPG Recommendation 07 describes an end to end encryption framework for short data services • Based on Framework for encrypted speech • Supports small applications such as position reporting functions etc

  11. Military - Civil Interface • Interface between COTS TETRA network and military network • PC running Linux • NC3A developed interface software • Converts GPS to OTH/Gold format for MCIS

  12. TETRA Services • Group Communication • Fast call set up • compared to GSM (300 msec typical for local area calls) • All informed half-duplex nets (i.e. broadcast and multicast) available • Direct Mode Operation • No infrastructure • Gateways and Repeaters • Emergency & Incident handling • Call priorities & preemption • Emergency button • Passive monitoring • Dispatching • Net Control Station - Directed Nets • TETRA services @ Combat Net Radio features

  13. TETRA - Military Services; Civil Standard • Developed for Public Safety & Security with C3 features • Group Communication • Direct Mode Operation (when no infrastructure) • Emergency facilities (call priorities & preemption) • Dispatching • TETRA services @ Combat Net Radio features • has many large, security conscious user groups • Large user groups -- COTS equipment

  14. Why COTS PCS ? • Military role has changed • Peace-keeping • Peace-support • Crisis response • OOW, Non-article 5 operations • Composition of forces has changed • increasingly multi-service, multi-national • Military budgets have changed

  15. NC3A PCS Study • Study all available Personal Communications Systems • terrestrial, satcom, COTS & GOTS • Evaluate for use against a detailed Crisis Response scenario • Match for suitability • different users e.g. military, policing, NGOs, VSOs • different applications e.g. speech, location, data, video • different tasks e.g. liaison, reconnaissance • different phases e.g. initial deployment to long-term peace support IDENTIFICATION

  16. TETRA Applications & Services • Location services • patrols, logistics, • Messaging • commanders, logistics • policing, compound security • status messages, VIN checks • Other data services • file transfer, COP • liaison, command net, logistics updates • Video • VTC for liaison • tele-medicine • reconnaissance • Speech Services • Talkgroups • patrols, compound security • logistics • Conference Calls • command net • liaison, high quality • Priority and Pre-emption • Interconnection / Interoperability • PSTN (if there is one) • Military networks

  17. NC3A TETRA Evaluation SystemSHAPE - June ‘01

  18. Where is NC3A using? • NC3A, NL • SHAPE, BE • JWID 2001 • Poland • Strong Resolve • Baumholder, GE • Combined Endeavour 2002 • Banja Luka, BiH • SFOR/BRITFOR trial (97 Signal Sqdn, UK)

  19. ETSI Standards; NATO Exercises • NC3A TETRA system is • Mobile • Deployable • Easy to use • Combined Endeavour 2002 • Strong Resolve • Used to establish comms infrastructure for exercise • SFOR trial, Banja Luka • 2nd (National Communications) Signal Brigade, UK

  20. Military and Civil InterfacingPSTN, Public Safety Mobile Radioand Tactical Military Comms PSTN / TETRA / Autoko trials AUTOKO - German Army tactical comms Clear speech interoperability

  21. Secure Voice Communications • Military and many public safety users want secure speech services • In emergency scenarios public safety users may want privacy from media • Security against eavesdropping and disruption • Must consider and protect against emergencies where cause is deliberate • Unprotected communications leaves rescuers vulnerable

  22. Security in TETRA Standards • Encryption • Air interface encryption between Mobile and Infrastructure • End-to-end encryption SFPG Rec 02 • Authentication • prevention against spoofing, denial of service • protect network access • Secure disabling and enabling of terminals • temporary and permanent • Encryption (4) and authentication (1) standard algorithms plus user defined algorithms • Key management • Key load, OTAK

  23. Overview Mandatory within TETRA Standards (network is trusted) Air interface encryption protected vulnerable protected Optional within TETRA Standards (network is untrusted) End-to-endencryption protected

  24. KeyManagement Encryption Sync flag SwMi ETSI TETRA Standard 300-392-7 Clause 7 TETRA Standards support End to end encryption End to end encryption is a terminal issue Voice Codec Standard is flexible to allow different solutions for government / commercial users ShortDataService Standard TETRAair interface encryptionand Key Management

  25. TETRA Security and Fraud Prevention Group Guidance on implementing end-to-end encryption within ETSI Standards Prepared with public safety, commercial & military input • Contents • Introduction • Overview • Physical Realisation Issues • Use of Algorithms • Key Management • Interoperability • Threats • Specifications • Appendices • User profiles • Additional detail to be specified • Sample specification (IDEA) • Sample Test Data Courtesy of D Parkinson, BT Exact

  26. TETRA Standards SFPG Recommendation 02 End to End Encryption Algorithm Vocoder TETRACivil Technology, Military Security • Need to interface during the standards making process • User requirements • Technical spec Commercial or national (public safety or military) algorithm Vocoder (TETRA ACELP, AMR or MELPe)

  27. A Digression on CongestionAvoiding it: Military Vocoder vs Civil Vocoder Voice Coders COTS X = 6 kbps COTS Y = 4.56 kbps COTS X = 4.56 kbps MELPe = 2.4 kbps MELPe is NATO Stanag 4591 • Congestion is a problem in emergency scenarios • Choice of voice coder • Military is used to minimising throughput for low capacity channels • Same speech intelligibility, half the throughput • Interoperability • More on MELPe at http://www.iee.org/OnComms/pn/communications • Frequency congestion and allocation Intelligibility (%) Male speaker Female speaker

  28. Frequency Allocation in Europe 380 383 385 390 393 395 400 Public Safety & Security Currently Reserved NATO Military • MoU on common frequency allocation has been signed by most European countries • Some nations sharing allocation and responsibility for public safety and commercial use - operational benefits • Could share military and civil allocations - operational benefits, political risks

  29. Security for other COTS PCSSummary of Trials with Early Commercial ‘Secure’ GSM Location Reliability Quality • Within NL 60-70% Good • Outside NL, Urban • Within country 90 % Good • International Poor • Rural 33 % Poor • GSM - PSTN 40 % Poor • But no NL-BE connectivity • Standard COTS services didn’t work as expected

  30. Military Secure GSM • Swedish/Norwegian Project • Integrated GSM / DECT unit • DECT via satellite • Encrypted Voice + Data • High grade • NATO and commercial versions • Reliable

  31. Summary • Long history of military forces working with public safety in emergencies • NATO is prepared for this role • e.g. NATO Civil Communications Planning Committee • Current events make military-public safety co-operation more likely and more important • Need effective, secure communications • Need commonality for quick and easy interfacing (interconnection and interoperability) • requires planning from the start • involvement by all in requirement definition and standards process

  32. Questions ? • http:// nc3a.info/PCS • Email: pcs@nc3a.info