FICTION • A narrative story that uses made-up or untrue characters or events is called fiction. In some works of fiction, the entire story is made up; in others, the story is based in part on real people or events. • Fiction includes both short stories and novels. A short story can usually be read in one sitting. Novels are longer and tend to be more complex.
Subgenres of Fiction • Realistic fiction – could possibly happen • Mystery – suspenseful, unanswered questions • Historical fiction – set in past with historically accurate details, but still made up. • Science Fiction – setting is the future or space; also uses science in unknown ways (but COULD happen in the future) • Fantasy – Could NEVER happen; talking animals, creatures, magic, strange lands, etc…
EXAMPLE The wise thing would be to run away from this potentially destructive-and-certainly mentally unstable-development. It would be stupid to encourage hallucinations. But his voice was fading. I took another step forward, testing. “Bella, turn around,” he growled. New Moon by Stephanie Meyer
NONFICTION • Writing that tells about real people, places, and events.
NONFICTION • There are two main types of nonfiction. • Literary nonfiction reads much like fiction, except that the characters, setting, and plot are real rather than imaginary. Its purpose is usually to entertain or express opinions or feelings. Literary nonfiction includes autobiographies, biographies, and essays. • Informative nonfiction provides factual information. Its main purpose is to inform or explain. Examples include: newspaper and magazine articles, textbooks, encyclopedia articles.
EXAMPLE April 4, 1968: The Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. After a day spent planning a series of protest marches to support a strike by predominantly black garbage collectors in Memphis, Tennessee, Dr. Martin Luther King, America’s foremost proponent of civil rights, strolled onto the second-floor balcony of the Lorraine Motel and chatted with his co-workers. Then, from a window of the rooming house across the street, came a single shot.
DRAMA (PLAY) • A drama or play is a form of literature meant to be performed before an audience. Dramas for stage are also called theatre. In a drama, the story is presented through the dialogue and the actions of the characters. • The written form of a drama is known as a script. A script usually includes dialogue, a cast of characters, and stage directions that give specific instruction about performing the play.
DRAMA • Two important kinds of drama are comedy and tragedy. • A comedy is light and humorous; • A tragedy ends in disaster – most often death – for the main character and often for other important characters as well.
EXAMPLE Azaz: Don’t be ridiculous. (To audience, as if leading a cheer.) Let’s hear it for words! Mathemagician: (To audience, in the same manner.) Cast your vote for numbers! Azaz: A,B,C’S! Mathemagician: 1,2,3,’S! (A fanfare is heard.)
POETRY • Poetry is a type of literature in which ideas, images, and feelings are expressed in few words. • Most poetry is written in lines, which may be grouped in stanzas. • Poets carefully select words for their sound and meanings, combining the words in imaginative ways to present feelings, pictures, experiences, and themes vividly. In poetry, the images appeal to readers’ senses, as do elements of sound, such as alliteration, rhythm, and rhyme.
EXAMPLE IF Rudyard Kipling If you can keep your head when all about you Are losing theirs and blaming it on you: If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you, But make allowance for their doubting too: If you can wait and not be tired of waiting, Or, being lied about, don’t’ deal in lies, Or being hated don’t give way to hating, And yet don’t look too good, nor talk too wise.
MEDIA • Media is any means of communication, such as radio and television, newspapers, and magazines, that reach or influence people widely.
EXAMPLE • Films, television shows, billboards, magazines, newspapers, websites, radio, and commercials are just some examples of media. • Check this one out! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KCs8gIMKBSo&feature=related