Fault tolerant routing in mobile ad hoc networks
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Fault Tolerant Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks. Yuan Xue and Klara Nahrstedt xue,klara@cs.uiuc.edu Computer Science Department University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign http://cairo.cs.uiuc.edu.

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Fault tolerant routing in mobile ad hoc networks

Fault Tolerant Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Yuan Xue and Klara Nahrstedt


Computer Science Department

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign


This research was supported by the ONR MURI NAVY CU 37515-6281 grant, and the NSF EIA 99-72884EQ grant. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the above agencies


  • Motivation

  • Model and problem formulation

  • Algorithm and its analysis

  • Example

  • Discussion

  • Simulation results

  • Related work

  • Conclusion


  • Most existing routing protocols need mobile nodes to cooperate with each other.

  • If there exist non-cooperative nodes or faulty nodes, then the performance of the current routing protocols will degrade.

Our approach tolerating faulty nodes
Our approach – tolerating faulty nodes

  • Observation:

    • Ad hoc networks are highly redundant – there exist multiple paths between source and destination.

  • Approach:

    • Exploring the network redundancy through multipath routing.

  • Challenge:

    • Trade off between effectiveness (packet delivery rate) and efficiency (packet overhead).


  • Network Model

  • Faulty Node Model

Problem formulation
Problem Formulation

  • Assumption

    • Perfect knowledge of faulty nodes behaviors

  • Packet-delivery-rate-constrained overhead-minimization problem (PCOO)

  • PCOO problem is NP-complete

E 2 ft algorithm i
E2FT Algorithm (I)

  • Challenges revisit

    • No precise knowledge of nodes behaviors

    • NP-complete complexity

  • Algorithm overview

    • Route estimation (end-to-end estimation)

      • Estimate

    • Route selection

      • Select so that and can be reduced

E 2 ft algorithm ii route estimation
E2FT Algorithm (II) – route estimation

  • raw estimation

    • Estimation

    • Raw estimation

    • Iterative estimation method

    • Problem: different estimation accuracy

  • a-estimation

    • Definition

    • Property

E 2 ft algorithm iii route selection
E2FT Algorithm (III) – route selection

  • Initially

  • Progressive route refinement via

    • Confirmation

      • Confirm a path p if

    • Dropping

      • Drop a path pmin if satisfies

Property analysis
Property analysis

  • Bounded packet delivery rate

  • Bounded route selection overhead


  • Accommodation to node mobility

    • Node estimation (max-min rule)

    • Path estimation

  • Accommodation to node behavior dynamics

    • Soft state – long term dynamics

    • Dynamics during estimation

  • Route set discovery

    • Needs to integrate with route discovery protocol

Simulation setup
Simulation Setup

  • Network settings

    • 700m*700m

    • 50 nodes

    • M faulty nodes – simulation parameter

  • Mobility model

    • Random waypoint

    • Speed: 20m/s

    • Pause time – simulation parameter

  • Default values

Other approaches
Other Approaches

  • Protection

    • SAR (Security-Aware Routing) by S. Yi et al.

    • Secure route discovery by Papadimitratos and Hass

    • URSA (Ubiquitous and Robust Security Architecture) by H. Luo et al.

  • Detection

    • Intrusion detection by Zhang and Lee

    • Detect misbehaving nodes by S. Marti et al.

  • Toleration

    • Blind multipath routing by Z. Hass et al.


  • Fault tolerant routing is an effective approach to address the problem of faulty/misbehaving nodes in ad hoc networks

  • E2FT can obtain high and stable packet delivery rate and acceptable additional overhead simultaneously