slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
No Stigmatized Child Left Behind: Understanding and Reducing the Effects that Stereotypes have on Performance PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
No Stigmatized Child Left Behind: Understanding and Reducing the Effects that Stereotypes have on Performance

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 31

No Stigmatized Child Left Behind: Understanding and Reducing the Effects that Stereotypes have on Performance - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 102 Views
  • Uploaded on

No Stigmatized Child Left Behind: Understanding and Reducing the Effects that Stereotypes have on Performance. Toni Schmader, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Psychology University of Arizona. Explaining race and gender differences in performance. Racial minorities: Higher dropout rate

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'No Stigmatized Child Left Behind: Understanding and Reducing the Effects that Stereotypes have on Performance' - haley


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

No Stigmatized Child Left Behind:Understanding and Reducing the Effects that Stereotypes have on Performance

Toni Schmader, Ph.D.

Associate Professor of Psychology

University of Arizona

explaining race and gender differences in performance
Explaining race and gender differences in performance
  • Racial minorities:
    • Higher dropout rate
    • Lower GPA
    • Lower test scores
  • Women in math:
    • Less likely to pursue math
    • Lower test scores
minding the gap
Minding the Gap
  • Sociological Explanations
  • Socialization Explanations
  • Biological Explanations
  • A Situational Explanation
stereotype threat a threat in the air
Stereotype Threat“A Threat in the Air”

Steele (1997)

  • When individuals feel that they might be judged in terms of a negative stereotype or that they might do something that would inadvertently confirm that stereotype.

Steele & Aronson (1995)

contextual cues that trigger threat
Contextual Cues that Trigger Threat
  • Making the grade – how a task is framed
    • Steele & Aronson (1995); Johns, Schmader, & Martens (2005); Spencer, Steele, & Quinn (1999)
  • Reduced to a stereotype – reminders of gender
    • Shih, Pittinsky, & Ambady (1999); Inzlicht & Ben Zeev (2000); Davies et al., (2003); Steele & Aronson (1995)
  • Effects shown in elementary & secondary school
    • Ambady, Shih, Kim, & Pittinsky (2001)
  • Replications in naturalistic classroom environments
    • Keller & Dauenheimer (2003), Danaher & Crandall (2008)
    • Moving demographics to after the test reduces gender gap by 33%
explaining the process

Explaining the Process

Mediators?

Poor Performance

Cues to Threat

explaining the process1

Explaining the Process

Math

Mediators?

Cues to Threat

Verbal

Spatial

Memory

Interaction

does stereotype threat reduce working memory capacity
Does Stereotype Threat Reduce Working Memory Capacity?
  • Working memory capacity
    • The ability to focus attention on a task while inhibiting irrelevant information. (Engle, 2001)
  • Measured using dual processing tasks
  • Working memory capacity = number of words
results
Results

Study 1: Men & Women

Study 2: Whites & Latinos

# of Words Recalled

Schmader & Johns (2003, JPSP)

does working memory capacity mediate test performance
Does Working Memory Capacity Mediate Test Performance?

Working Memory Capacity

.58***

-.52**

Stereotype Threat

Math Test Performance

-.42*

Schmader & Johns (Study 3, 2003, JPSP)

does working memory capacity mediate test performance1
Does Working Memory Capacity Mediate Test Performance?

Working Memory Capacity

.58***

-.52**

Stereotype Threat

Math Test Performance

-.12 ns

Sobel:z = 2.26*

Schmader & Johns (Study 3, 2003, JPSP)

a stress induced cognitive deficit model of stereotype threat
A Stress-Induced Cognitive Deficit Model of Stereotype Threat

Working

Memory

Capacity

Performance on Cognitive Task

Environmental Trigger of Stereotype Threat

a stress induced cognitive deficit model of stereotype threat1
A Stress-Induced Cognitive Deficit Model of Stereotype Threat

Increased

Performance Monitoring

Working

Memory

Capacity

Performance on Cognitive Task

Environmental Trigger of Stereotype Threat

Physiological Stress Response

a stress induced cognitive deficit model of stereotype threat2
A Stress-Induced Cognitive Deficit Model of Stereotype Threat

Increased

Performance Monitoring

Appraisal Processes

Working

Memory

Capacity

Performance on Cognitive Task

Environmental Trigger of Stereotype Threat

Physiological Stress Response

a stress induced cognitive deficit model of stereotype threat3
A Stress-Induced Cognitive Deficit Model of Stereotype Threat

Increased

Performance Monitoring

Appraisal Processes

Working

Memory

Capacity

Performance on Cognitive Task

Environmental Trigger of Stereotype Threat

Negative Cognitions

Negative Emotions

Physiological Stress Response

a stress induced cognitive deficit model of stereotype threat4
A Stress-Induced Cognitive Deficit Model of Stereotype Threat

Increased

Performance Monitoring

Appraisal Processes

Emotion Regulation

Working

Memory

Capacity

Performance on Cognitive Task

Environmental Trigger of Stereotype Threat

Negative Cognitions

Negative Emotions

Physiological Stress Response

manifestations of threat contexts that cue threat lead to
Manifestations of Threat:Contexts that Cue Threat Lead to:
  • Lower test performance
    • Johns et al. (2005); Schmader & Johns (2003); Steele & Aronson (1995)
  • Lower expectancies and self-confidence
    • Schmader, Johns, & Barquissau (2004); Stangor et al., (1998)
some female science math majors buy into the stereotype
Some Female Science & Math Majors Buy into the Stereotype

Women’s endorsement

correlates with:

- lower confidence

r = -.21, p < .05

- lower self-esteem

about performance

r = -.26, p < .05

- less interest in

graduate school

r = -.26, p < .05

e.g., “I don’t think that there are any real

gender differences in math ability.”

Strongly Strongly

agree disagree

Endorsement

Schmader, Johns, Barquissau (2004) Journal of Sex Roles

manifestations of threat contexts that cue threat lead to1
Manifestations of Threat:Contexts that Cue Threat Lead to:
  • Lower test performance
    • Johns et al. (2005); Schmader & Johns (2003); Steele & Aronson (1995)
  • Lower expectancies and self-confidence
    • Schmader, Johns, & Barquissau (2004); Stangor et al., (1998)
  • Less interest in math, science, and leadership
    • Davies, Spencer, & Steele (2005)
subtle exposure to gender stereotypes can affect women s preferences
Subtle Exposure to Gender Stereotypes can Affect Women’s Preferences

Effects on Women’s

Career Preferences

Effects on Women’s

Leadership Preference

TV Commercials

TV Commercials

Davies, Spencer, Quinn, & Gerhardstein (2002) Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Davies, Spencer, & Steele (2005) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

closing the gap solution 1 creating a threat free environment
Closing the GapSolution 1: Creating a Threat Free Environment

The Benefits of Role Models

The Presence of People like Me

Marx & Roman (2002)

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin

Inzlicht & Ben-Zeev (2000)

Psychological Science

a stress induced cognitive deficit model of stereotype threat5
A Stress-Induced Cognitive Deficit Model of Stereotype Threat

Increased

Performance Monitoring

Are group differences eliminated when women are taught to reappraise the situation?

Appraisal Processes

Emotion Regulation

Working

Memory

Capacity

Performance on Cognitive Task

Environmental Trigger of Stereotype Threat

Negative Cognitions

Negative Emotions

Physiological Stress Response

closing the gap solution 2 threat inoculation through education
Closing the GapSolution 2: Threat Inoculation through Education
  • Fostering a sense of belonging
    • Everyone faces doubts about performance
    • Walton & Cohen (2007)
  • Emphasizing skill over ability
    • Learning is an incremental process
    • Good, Aronson, & Inzlicht (2003)
closing the gap solution 1 educating students about academic experiences
Closing the GapSolution 1: Educating Students about Academic Experiences

Good, Aronson, & Inzlicht (2003) Applied Developmental Psychology

closing the gap solution 2 threat inoculation through education1
Closing the GapSolution 2: Threat Inoculation through Education
  • Fostering a sense of belonging
    • Everyone faces doubts about performance
    • Walton & Cohen (2007)
  • Emphasizing skill over ability
    • Learning is an incremental process
    • Good, Aronson, & Inzlicht (2003)
  • Unveiling the effects of stereotype threat
    • Stereotypes as an external explanation for anxiety
    • Johns, Schmader, & Martens (2005)
what is the effect of learning about stereotype threat
What is the effect of learning about stereotype threat?

Two Competing Hypotheses:

  • Ignorance is bliss

Knowing about threat could make stereotypes come to mind more easily & erode self-efficacy

  • Knowledge is power

Stereotypes offer an external explanation for anxiety that might reduce threat

slide30

Does Teaching Stereotype Threat Inoculate Women Against its Effects?

Described stereotype threat & said: “It’s important to keep in mind that if you are feeling anxious while taking this test, this anxiety could be the result of these negative stereotypes that are widely known in society and have nothing to do with your actual ability to do well on the test.”

Johns, Schmader, & Martens (2005) Psychological Science

summary implications
Summary & Implications
  • Stereotype threat offers a situational account of the performance gap
  • Changing the situation can reduce the threat
  • Implications for Affirmative Action
    • Controls for gap in scores created by stereotypes
    • Creates diverse and threat-free learning environment