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Parts of Speech. NOUN = person, place, idea, or thing. Common – general name Ex: car Proper – name of a particular person, place, or thing Ex: Honda Concrete – a thing that can be experienced thru one of the 5 senses Ex: ice cream

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noun person place idea or thing
NOUN = person, place, idea, or thing
  • Common – general name Ex: car
  • Proper – name of a particular person, place, or thing Ex: Honda
  • Concrete – a thing that can be experienced thru one of the 5 senses Ex: ice cream
  • Abstract – idea, feeling, or quality Ex: happiness
  • Collective – names a group Ex: class
  • Singular – names one person, place, thing, or idea Ex: man child
  • Plural- names more than one person, place, thing, or idea Ex: men children
  • Possessive – shows ownership Ex: father’s
  • Compound – two or more words working together to make a single noun Ex: baseball
why nouns matter
Why Nouns matter…
  • Without using the right noun and the right kind of noun, writing can be too vague and/or not make sense to the reader.
  • Every complete sentence must have a subject.
  • Only nouns and pronouns can play the part of a subject in a sentence.
slide6
PRACTICE:Copy each sentence, underlining any nouns in the sentence and labeling the type(s) of noun(s) for each.
  • The project to land astronauts on the moon was named Apollo.
  • I was born on February 9, 1943.
  • I noticed that my sister’s purse had been left in the car.
  • I worked on my math project for three days!
  • My mom spends Sunday mornings clipping coupons from the newspaper.
  • The players took the field and waited for the referee to blow his whistle.
  • The students questioned the professor’s excitement about the new set of pencils.
  • The mice waited for the lab assistant to place the Swiss cheese in their cage.
pronoun takes the place of a noun
Pronoun = takes the place of a noun
  • Possessive – shows ownership
    • Ex: me, mine, ours, yours, theirs
  • Reflexive – refers back to the subject
    • Ex: The girl dedicated herself to being the best.
  • Interrogative – introduces a question
    • Ex: who, whom, whose, what, which
  • Demonstrative – points out a person, place, or thing
    • Ex: this, that, these, those
  • Indefinite – does not refer to a specific person, place, or thing
    • Ex: few, both, all, some, either, everybody, nobody, something, etc.
  • Relative - Relative pronouns are that, who, whom, whose, which, where, when, and why. They are used to join clauses to make a complex sentence.
every pronoun has an antecedent
Every pronoun has an antecedent.
  • My mother washed her car and then it rained.

“her” refers back to “mother”

Mother is the antecedent to her.

pronouns must agree with their antecedents
Pronouns must agree with their antecedents
  • In gender
  • In number
  • In “person” (first person, second person, third person)
    • Mike wanted _____ paycheck to be deposited.
    • Teachers like _____ students to read.
    • The visitors realized that _____ were hungry.
why pronouns matter
Why Pronouns Matter
  • Readers get frustrated and may give up if writing is too confusing. To get ideas across, the writer must be clear about who is doing what.
practice how many pronoun errors are in this paragraph how should these be corrected
Practice:How many pronoun errors are in this paragraph? How should these be corrected?

What if my brother and me were abandoned by my entire community on our island home? How would us castoffs survive? What would we do with ourself?

In Island of the Blue Dolphins, by Scott O’Dell, the heroine was left behind with her brother, who was soon killed by wild dogs. It was her who remained on the island for eighteen years. She tamed one of the island dogs herself and named in Rontu; it’s friendship was invaluable to her.

Few of the people I know would take such good care of himself or herself if left alone on an island. Even these who know the wilderness might not have the mental strength to last alone for such a long time. O’Dell’s heroine showed great skill, courage, and patience. Whom else would be so strong?

verbs are critical in a sentence
VERBS ARE CRITICAL IN A SENTENCE!
  • Every sentence has to have a verb!
    • You can get away with writing a sentence that contains no nouns:
      • Don’t do that. It’s dangerous and if you do it enough, it’ll kill you!
      • He likes her, but I like him more than she does.
      • Listen closely to what I say and you’ll learn to write right.
      • If I try to write a sentence without a verb, it’s a fragment, not a sentence.
        • Yum. Good food. More cookies anywhere?
verbs show action or state of being
Verbs show action or state of being
  • Action = run, swim, jump, taste, fall, dream, etc.
  • State of being (linking verbs) = be, appear, seem, feel, etc.
  • Be Verbs: is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been
  • Examples of state of being verbs: feel, taste, look, smell, appear, grow, remain, turn, seem, sound, become
action vs linking
Action vs. linking
  • The monkey looked hungry.
  • The monkey looked for food.
  • The soup tasted good.
  • I tasted the soup.
  • He grew tired of walking.
  • He grew into a tall man.
verb tense when did it happen
Verb Tense: (When did it happen?)
  • Present : I run very fast.
  • Past : I ran very fast.
  • Future : I will run very fast.
be careful to stay in the same tense throughout your sentence
Be careful to stay in the same tense throughout your sentence.
  • Weak –

I got home late and Mom

fusses at me for not

calling to let her know

where I will be.

I got home = past

Mom fusses = present

Where I will be = future

  • Better –

I got home late and Mom

fussed at me for not

calling to let her know

where I had been.

Everything is in the past

tense.

regular vs irregular verbs
Regular vs. Irregular Verbs

Regular Verbs follow a pattern when moving from one tense to another:

Irregular verbs sometime will seem to follow a pattern, but there is no steadfast rule:

slide21
Caution – Major Mistake Territory! Confusing lie and lay is probably the #1 mistake in the English language.

Lie is a “still” verb.

TENSES:

Lie, lay, lain, lying

Today I lie in bed.

Yesterday I lay in bed.

I have lain in bed many times.

Yesterday I was lying in bed all day.

Lying in bed all day is boring.

  • People lie on beds.
  • Dogs lie on people.
  • Fleas lie on dogs.

The people, the dogs, and the

fleas are in a state of stillness.

slide22
Caution – Major Mistake Territory! Confusing lie and lay is probably the #1 mistake in the English language.

Lay shows that the noun is placing something and thus being active

TENSES: lay, laid, laid, laying

Today I lay the book on the counter.

Yesterday I laid the book on the counter.

Many times I have laid the book on the counter.

Yesterday I was laying the book on the counter.

Laying books on the kitchen counter is against the rules in my house.

  • A person picks up a hen and lays it on the hay.
  • A hen lays eggs.
  • I picked up the eggs and laid them in my basket.
can you find the mistakes
Can you find the mistakes?
  • When I was a kid, I swang every day on an old tire my dad hanged in a tree for me.
  • I wish I’d waken up earlier.
  • Adam breaks the dish when he tossed it to Omar who is standing at the sink.
  • If I was you, I’d buy that gorgeous dress.
  • I’ve laid awake all night worrying about my math test.
  • I’m sure I lay my assignment on the teacher’s desk yesterday.
can you find the mistakes1
Can you find the mistakes?
  • When I was a kid, I swung every day on an old tire my dad hung in a tree for me. Watch out for irregular verbs!
  • I wish I’d (waked or woken) up earlier. Waken isn’t a word!
  • Adam broke the dish when he tossed it to Omar who stood at the sink. Keep all tenses the same in the sentence!
  • If I were you, I’d buy that gorgeous dress. Listen to the way the sentence sounds – your ear will tell you the correct way most of the time.
  • I’ve lain awake all night worrying about my math test. Unless you were producing eggs while you were worrying, you didn’t “laid” anything.  Remember – you are still in this sentence.
  • I’m sure I laid my assignment on the teacher’s desk yesterday. Placing something somewhere is active. You aren’t being still here.
strong verb vs weak verb
Strong Verb Vs. Weak Verb

My sister pinched a hunk

of my arm when I

wouldn’t let her sit by the

window.

My uncle zig-zagged

across the yard.

I relaxed in the chair, dozing

from time to time.

My sister hurt me because I wouldn’t let her sit by the window.

My uncle walked across the yard.

I sat in the chair.

which verbs energize the sentences
Which verbs energize the sentences?
  • Melanie weaseled her way into my heart, and later I cursed myself for letting her in.
  • Melanie weaseled her way into my heart, and later I cursed myself for letting her in.
  • As he kneaded the bread, he wished it were Harry’s face there on the counter, in a convenient, doughy lump.
  • As he kneaded the bread, he wished it were Harry’s face there on the counter, in a convenient, doughy lump.
  • She pounded the desk with a frozen fish and demanded complete silence in the room.
  • She pounded the desk with a frozen fish and demanded complete silence in the room.
  • Doug snapped the head off a match with his thumbnail.
  • Doug snapped the head off a match with his thumbnail.
  • Lenny snickered as Angela tiptoed into the room.
  • Lenny snickered as Angela tiptoed into the room.
practice rewrite the sentence using a more vivid verb to energize the sentence
Practice:Rewrite the sentence using a more vivid verb to energize the sentence.

1.) Harold opened is mouth wide and bit off 12 square inches of pizza.

2.) The beauty queen walked up to the judges and placed her crown on the table.

3.) Paula removed her mittens and threw them into the fire.

4.) The pigeon sat on the dead branch.

5.) Walter walked into the den and fell flat on his face.

match up each of the weak verbs on the left with a stronger option on the right
Match up each of the weak verbs on the left with a stronger option on the right.
  • Pointed
  • Walked
  • Wrote
  • Poured
  • Yelled
  • Rubbed
  • Teased
  • Looked
  • Picked
  • Scribbled
  • Howled
  • Scoured
  • Aimed
  • Bullied
  • Oozed
  • Peered
  • Harvested
  • Sauntered
as the can turns
As the can turns…
  • You are a can of soda. You have been popped, drained, smashed, bashed, and trashed. Tell your story to your psychologist. You are on the couch. Life has been hard. Use vivid, interesting verbs to tell the tale of your miserable aluminum life.
slide31
Adjective = a word that modifies, or describes, a noun or pronounAdjectives answer questions about nouns or pronouns:
types of adjectives
Types of Adjectives
  • Proper – formed from a proper noun and always capitalized. Ex: English Tea, Colombian Coffee, Italian Espresso
  • Predicate – describes the subject of the sentence (only appears after a linking verb) Ex: The students are very intelligent.
  • Articles – the most common adjectives
          • A, an, the
why adjectives matter
Why Adjectives Matter…
  • Adjectives can be used to supply important details that make the writing more specific and clear. Adjectives can allow a writer to convey a lot of descriptive information in a single word.

A large dinner party is being given in an up-country station by a colonial official and his wife. The guests are army officers and government leaders and their wives, and an American naturalist. -”The Dinner Party” by Mona Gardner

practice rewrite the following passage adding adjectives to make it more detailed and descriptive
Practice:Rewrite the following passage adding adjectives to make it more detailed and descriptive.

I just learned that fingerprints are not the only markings that distinguish us. Did you know that the patterns on our skin are also unique? So don’t take off your shoes the next time you rob the bank! Remember, the police have methods to catch you!

what is an adverb
What is an adverb?
  • It is a word that describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb and tells these things:
    • Where: there, here, outside, inside, away
    • When: now, then, later, immediately, yesterday
    • How: quickly, slowly, stupidly, gracefully, effortlessly
    • How often or how long: frequently, never, twice, sometimes
    • How much: hardly, extremely, minimally, greatly, too, more
adverb mistakes can make your writing sloppy
Adverb mistakes can make your writing sloppy. 
  • What wrong with these sentences?
    • Meg looks real good in her new dress.
    • Simon turned the corner too quick and crashed.
    • We played awesome in our game.
    • I want to go to the game so bad I could scream.
what s the difference between an adjective and an adverb
What’s the difference between an adjective and an adverb?

Adjective

  • Sad
  • Kind
  • Quick
  • Tender
  • Artistic
  • Noisy

Adverb

  • Sadly
  • Kindly
  • Quickly
  • Tenderly
  • Artistically
  • Noisily
examples
Examples:
  • This sentence is written awful bad.

(you are telling “how” it’s written – you need an adverb!)

  • This sentence is written awful badly.

(You need another verb to tell “how” badly it’s written.)

  • This sentence is not written awfully badly – it’s perfect!

(And it’s grammatically correct! )

which ones work
Which ones work?
  • We performed awesome!
  • Our performance was awesome!
  • We performed really awesome.
  • The awesome performance was great!
  • We performed awesomely!
the best rule to remember
The best rule to remember:
  • Use adverbs with action verbs.
  • Use adjectives with linking verbs.

Ex: She skates gracefully.

He sings well.

Tori is tired.

David was thirsty.

mistakes i ve made a few
Mistakes? I’ve made a few…
  • The dog smells badly.

2. This is a real pretty dress.

3. What a nice gesture on your part to greet them so nice when they arrived.

4. Josh’s mom hugged him real sweet and said, “Enough grammar. Let’s eat cake!”

slide48
Take the teasing comb and back-comb all your hair until it looks like an electrified Persian cat. To tease your hair, grab a small section and hold it up by the end. Comb downward with the teasing comb in short fast strokes until it gets tangled at the bottom. Pull the teased hair up and out to achieve maximum altitude. Liberally apply the hair spray to hold the teased hair in place. If you can still see the walls, you haven’t sprayed enough. Spray more. All these styles must be taken care of while you sleep. Some women use the beehive hairnet; others use feather pillows to sleep upon; while still others sleep upright in the La-Z-Boy. Your mileage may vary. Just be careful not to put anyone’s eye out.
slide49
Take the teasing comb and back-comb all your hair. To tease your hair, grab a small section and hold it. Comb downward. Pull the teased hair. Liberally apply the hair spray. If you can still see the walls, you haven’t sprayed enough. Spray more. All these styles must be taken care of while you sleep. Some women use the beehive hairnet; others use feather pillows; while others sleep upright. Your mileage may vary. Just be careful not to put anyone’s eye out.
what s the difference
What’s the difference?
  • The first passage is:
    • more descriptive
    • creates a visual
    • Longer

How?

The first passage makes use of prepositions!

preposition
Preposition
  • A word that shows how a noun or pronoun relates to another part of the sentence
  • Ex: My dog is lying to me.

My dog is lying nextto me.

I am swimming toward the shark’s tummy.

I am swimming awayfrom the shark’s tummy.

I am swimming inside the shark’s tummy.

don t overdo it
Don’t overdo it
  • Don’t use a bunch of prepositional phrases in a row.

I went to a store in a town in Ohio in the middle of a flood in

June which is during Ohio’s rainy season, and in a matter of

minutes found myself knee-deep in water. 10 PREPOSITIONS

IN ONE SENTENCE! EEK!

Better:

Last June, I visited a small Ohio town during the rainy season.

When I went into a flooded store, I quickly found myself knee

deep in water. THAT’S ONLY 3 PREPOSITIONS. MUCH BETTER!

in doubt
In doubt?
  • If you are ever not sure whether a word is a preposition or not, use this trick.
  • If you can successfully put the word in the blank of this sentence, it’s more than likely a preposition:

The bird pooped ___________ the bush.

the bird pooped the bush
The bird pooped ________ the bush.

About above across after Up

Against along among around upon

At before behind below with

Beneath beside between by within

Down during except for

From in in front of inside

instead of into like near

Of off on onto

on top of out of outside over

Past since through to

Toward under underneath until

how would prepositions help these sentences
How would prepositions help these sentences?
  • The dog barked.
  • The car sped.
  • The stairs were high.
now how about a vivid verb and some adjectives and or adverbs
Now how about a vivid verb and some adjectives and/or adverbs?
  • The dog barked.
  • The car sped.
  • The stairs were high.
interjection
Interjection
  • is a big name for a little word.
  • are short exclamations like Oh!, Um or Ah!
  • They have no real grammatical value but we use them quite often, usually more in speaking than in writing.
  • An interjection is usually followed by an exclamation mark (!) when written.
slide59

Aha! There's my bookbag.

  • Argh! I messed that model up again!
  • Bravo! You managed not to fall this time.
  • Cheers! Hope your graduation goes great.
  • Ew, what a gross movie.
  • Gee, I wonder who that could be?
  • Hooray! Score one for the good guys.
  • Oops! That was your pet spider, wasn't it?
  • Ouch! Something bit me!
  • Whew! That was close! We almost got caught.
  • Wow! That airplane ride was awesome!
conjunction junction what s your function
Conjunction Junction...what’s your function?
  • Conjunction Junction, what's your function?Hooking up words and phrases and clauses.Conjunction Junction, how's that function?I got three favorite carsThat get most of my job done.Conjunction Junction, what's their function?I got "and", "but", and "or", They'll get you pretty far.

-”Conjunction Juntion” from SchoolhouseRock

coordination conjunctions
Coordination Conjunctions

FANBOYS

FOR AND NOR BUT OR YET SO

coordination conjunctions1
Coordination Conjunctions
  • Coordinating conjunctions connect words, phrases, and clauses.
  • The bowl of squid eyeball stew is hot and delicious.
  • The squid eyeball stew is so thick that you can eat it with a fork or spoon.
  • Rocky, my orange tomcat, loves having his head scratched but hates getting his claws trimmed.
  • Rocky terrorizes the poodles next door yet adores the German shepherd across the street.
slide64

A coordinating conjunction can join two main clauses that a writer wants to emphasize equally. The pattern for coordination looks like this:

main clause + coordinating conjunction + main clause.

  • In this case, you put a comma after the first main clause (before the coordinating conj.)

While I am at work, my dog Floyd sleeps on the bed ,

and my cat Buster naps in the bathtub.

coordinating conjunctions joining words
Coordinating Conjunctions joining words

Two Items = no comma

  • My dog Floyd has too many fleas and too much hair.
  • My cat Buster has beautiful blue eyes but a destructive personality.

Three or more items, put a comma before the conjunction

  • You need your book, notebook, and pencil.
conjunction junction how s that function
Conjunction Junction, how’s that function?
  • Conjunction Junction, what's your function?Hooking up two cars to oneWhen you say something like this choice:"Either now or later"Or no choice:"Neither now nor ever"Hey that's clever!Eat this or that, grow thin or fat,Never mind, I wouldn't do that,I'm fat enough now!
  • -”Conjunction Juntion” from SchoolhouseRock
correlative conjunctions
Correlative Conjunctions
  • Always travel together – like relatives

both . . . andnot only . . . but alsonot . . . buteither . . . or neither . . . norwhether . . . oras . . . as

  • Not only did Bob need bread, but he also had to buy butter.
  • Whether you like it or not, you will need to study.
subordinating conjunctions
Subordinating Conjunctions
  • AAWWWUUBBIS

After although when where while until unless because before if since

subordinating conjunctions1
Subordinating Conjunctions
  • Come at the beginning of a dependent clauses and establish the relationship between the dependent clause and the rest of the sentence. It also turns the clause into something that depends on the rest of the sentence for its meaning.
  • He took to the stage as though he had been preparing for this moment all his life.
  • Because he loved acting, he refused to give up his dream of being in the movies.
  • Unless we act now, all is lost.