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Parts of Speech. Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Adjectives, Adverbs, Conjunctions, Prepositions, Interjections. Nouns. Person, place, thing, idea Concrete nouns – can be perceived with at least one of the five senses (rock, salt, scream)

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parts of speech

Parts of Speech

Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Adjectives, Adverbs, Conjunctions, Prepositions, Interjections

nouns
Nouns
  • Person, place, thing, idea
  • Concrete nouns – can be perceived with at least one of the five senses (rock, salt, scream)
  • Abstract nouns – cannot be perceived with the senses (humor, anger, fear)
  • Common nouns – non-specific, just any old person, place, thing or idea (boy, house, shoe)
  • Proper nouns – names a specific person, place, thing or idea (Jeff, White House, Nike)
slide3
There are 20 nouns in the following paragraph. Then label each noun as common or proper, concrete or abstract.

This summer we went on vacation to the beach. Usually we go to Orange Beach, but this time we went to Destin. We had so much fun playing in the sand and waves. We spent a lot of time lying in the sun, too. We met some new friends from Georgia. We all rode jet skis and kayaks together. The condo had a huge pool with a waterfall. The entire week was pure joy.

nouns in paragraph
Nouns in paragraph…

This summer we went on vacation to the beach. Usually we go to Orange Beach, but this time we went to Destin. We had so much fun playing in the sand and waves. We spent a lot of time lying in the sun, too. We met some new friends from Georgia. We all rode jetskis and kayaks together. The condo had a huge pool with a waterfall. The entire week was pure joy.

types of nouns
Types of nouns…

1. summer – common, concrete 11. sun – common, concrete

2. vacation – common, concrete 12. friends – common, concrete

3. beach – common, concrete 13. Georgia – proper, concrete

4. Orange Beach – proper, concrete 14. jet skis – common, concrete

5. time – common, concrete 15. kayaks – common, concrete

6. Destin – proper, concrete 16. condo – common, concrete

7. fun – common, abstract 17. pool – common, concrete

8. sand – common, concrete 18. waterfall – common, concrete

9. waves – common, concrete 19. week - common, concrete

10. time – common, concrete 20. joy – common, abstract

pronouns
Pronouns
  • Replaces nouns
  • Instead of using the word boy or Jim, you can use he, him, his…
  • Instead of cat, you can use it

Imagine having to write or speak with no pronouns…..

a language with no pronouns
A language with no pronouns…

Julie forgot Julie’s homework at Julie’s house and Julie was late for school. Julie had to tell Julie’s teacher that Julie forgot Julie’s homework and Julie’s teacher was not happy. Julie’s teacher made Julie sit in silent lunch and do Julie’s homework all over again.

Can you imagine having to speak like this??? This is why we have pronouns!!!

the paragraph with pronouns
The paragraph with pronouns…

Julie forgot her homework at her house and she was late for school. She had to tell her teacher that she forgot her homework and her teacher was not happy. Julie’s teacher made her sit in silent lunch and do her homework all over again.

Isn’t that easier???

antecedents
Antecedents
  • A pronoun must have an antecedent – that is the noun to which the pronoun is referring
  • Example: Austin lost hiswallet and he is looking for it everywhere.

his & he refer to Austin, it refers to wallet

identify the pronouns and their antecedents in the sentences below
Identify the pronouns and their antecedents in the sentences below.
  • The frog ran into the road and a car ran over it.
  • Mary caught her hair in the hairdryer and scorched it terribly.
  • Scotty talked himself into going out for baseball and he is very good at it.
  • Brandon is ready for deer season and he bought a new gun with his own money.
antecedents and pronouns
Antecedents and pronouns
  • The frog ran into the road and a car ran over it. (it = frog)
  • Mary caught herhair in the hairdryer and scorched it terribly. (her=Mary; it=hair)
  • Scotty talked himself into going out for baseball and he is very good at it. (himself, he=Scotty; it=baseball)
  • Brandon is ready for deer season and he bought a new gun with his own money. (he, his=Brandon)
different kinds of pronouns
Different kinds of pronouns
  • Personal pronouns – stand for people; Bobby = he; Cindy = she; dog = it;
  • First person – I me my mine we us our ours
  • Second person – you your yours
  • Third person – he him his she her hers it its; they them their theirs
identify the personal pronouns and tell if they are first second or third person
Identify the personal pronouns and tell if they are first, second or third person.
  • The dentist asked me questions before looking at my teeth.
  • You need to find your insurance card before you go to the doctor.
  • He washed the car quickly and went on to finish the rest of his chores.
  • Dad told the mechanics to call him about his bill
  • I really don’t know why we have to go to all this trouble just to throw a party.
reflexive pronouns
Reflexive pronouns
  • Refers back to the subject
  • Always ends in –self or –selves
  • Myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, himself, herself, itself, themselves
  • Example: Buddy fixed himself a sandwich and watched t.v. until his mom got home.
possessive pronouns
Possessive pronouns
  • Personal pronouns that show ownership
  • Do not confuse the possessive its with it’s; it’s is the contraction for “it is” or “it has”
  • Example: The cat chased its tail around in circles until it fell over into its bowl of water.
demonstrative pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns…
  • Points out a particular or specific person, place, thing or idea
  • this, that, these, those
  • Example:

This is what I want. Or…

These are the right shoes. Or…

I always like to do that. Or…

Gabby likes those, too!

demonstrative pronouns cont d
Demonstrative pronouns, cont’d…
  • Do not confuse a demonstrative pronoun with an adjective; this, that, these, and those can be an adjective if they have something to describe…
  • Such as this car, that road, these flowers, those trees
  • It’s only a demonstrative pronoun if it is taking the place of a noun and works on its own
demonstrative pronoun or adjective
Demonstrative pronoun or adjective?
  • You can have one of those if you want.
  • These papers are not graded yet.
  • I need this done right now.
  • Do you have one of these?
  • You could do that if you wanted to.
  • That cow looks sick.
  • This is the longest day of my life!
  • This book is one of the best I’ve ever read.
answers for demonstrative or adjective
Answers for Demonstrative or Adjective?
  • You can have one of those if you want. (dem)
  • These papers are not graded yet. (adj)
  • I need this done right now. (dem)
  • Do you have one of these? (dem)
  • You could do that if you wanted to. (dem)
  • That cow looks sick. (adj)
  • This is the longest day of my life! (dem)
  • This book is one of the best I’ve ever read. (adj)
indefinite pronoun
Indefinite pronoun…
  • Refers to a non-specific person, place, thing, or idea
  • Examples: everyone (who exactly is everyone?) many (just how many is many?) some (how many?) something (can you be more specific?) each (each what?)
identify the pronouns in the sentences below
Identify the pronouns in the sentences below…
  • Is your puppy losing its baby teeth?
  • This jacket is mine; that one must be his.
  • Something is different about your hair.
  • Your locker is next to hers.
  • Everyone knows the answer to that.
  • Shelia reminded herself of her test.
  • They treated themselves to a movie.
  • This is good, but her project is better.
pronouns identified
Pronouns identified…
  • Is your puppy losing its baby teeth?
  • This jacket is mine; that one must be his.
  • Something is different about your hair.
  • Your locker is next to hers.
  • Everyone knows the answer to that.
  • Shelia reminded herself of her test.
  • They treated themselves to a movie.
  • This is good, but her project is better.
now tell me what kind they are
Now tell me what kind they are…
  • Is your puppy losing its baby teeth?
  • This jacket is mine; that one must be his.
  • Something is different about your hair.
  • Your locker is next to hers.
  • Everyone knows the answer to that.
  • Shelia reminded herself of her test.
  • They treated themselves to a movie.
  • This is good, but her project is better.

Your choices are: personal, possessive, demonstrative, interrogative, indefinite or reflexive

identifying pronouns
Identifying pronouns…
  • Is your (pers) puppy losing its (poss) baby teeth?
  • This jacket is mine (poss); that one (indef) must be his (poss).
  • Something (indef) is different about your (poss) hair.
  • Your (poss) locker is next to hers (poss).
  • Everyone (indef) knows the answer to that (demon).
  • Shelia reminded herself (reflex) of her (poss) test.
  • They (person) treated themselves (reflex) to a movie.
  • This (demon) is good, but her (poss) project is better.

Your choices are: personal, possessive, demonstrative, indefinite or reflexive

verbs action and linking
Verbs – action and linking
  • Shows action or a state of being
  • Action verbs – expresses physical or mental action
  • Linking – connects the subject of a sentence with a word in the predicate that explains or describes the subject
action verb
Action verb

Find the action verbs in each of these sentences:

  • I like it when we use computers in math class.
  • Please clear the table, Jesse, and wash the dishes.
  • I understand science much better than I comprehend math.
linking verbs
Linking verbs

Linking verbs list: forms of the verb “be”

am is are was were has been

have been had been will be shall be

may be might be can be should be

would have been

Other linking verbs:

appear grow seem stay

become look smell taste

feel remain sound turn

linking or action
Linking or Action???

Some verbs can be action or linking…

Mark suddenly appeared from behind the bush.

Mark appeared lonely at the dance.

Lora smelled the flowers.

The flowers smelled sweet.

action or linking
Action or Linking???
  • Here’s a trick:

If you aren’t sure if the verb is linking or not, try substituting a linking “be” verb in its place

Lora smelled the flowers.

Lora is the flowers. (doesn’t work, so it must be an action verb)

The flowers smelled sweet.

The flowers are sweet. (it works! So this is a linking verb)

linking or action use the trick and identify each verb as action or linking
Linking or action? Use the trick and identify each verb as action or linking?
  • The pie tasted so good after dinner.
  • The flowers grow well in my yard.
  • He grew tired as the speech went on.
  • Kiah looked everywhere for her jacket.
  • Tony sounded the alarm as the fire spread.
  • Shirah looked surprised at the party.
  • The speakers sounded broken.
  • She seemed worried all afternoon.
  • The weather turned nasty at dark.
  • He turned the light off.
helping verbs
Helping verbs

Some verbs that look like linking verbs, are actually helping verbs. They “help” the main action verb.

The flowers have attracted many butterflies.

You may find the answers in this book.

It could have been broken before now.

I do not like that flavor ice cream.

***The helping verb and main verb = verb phrase.

verbs practice identify the verbs in the following sentences don t forget the helping verbs
Verbs practice: identify the verbs in the following sentences. Don’t forget the helping verbs.
  • This packet of information will help you.
  • Perhaps you and a friend can practice together.
  • At first, it may be a challenge.
  • You run fast and jump really high.
  • He looked very angry last night.
  • A cloud appeared out of the sky.
  • He grew three inches over the summer.
  • Josy learned how to dance the new salsa dance.
  • Those berries are called blueberries.
  • You can make the world a better place.
verbs now identify the verbs as linking or action
Verbs: Now, identify the verbs as linking or action.
  • This packet of information will help you.
  • Perhaps you and a friend can practice together.
  • At first, it may be a challenge.
  • You run fast and jump really high.
  • He looked very angry last night.
  • A cloud appeared out of the sky.
  • He grew three inches over the summer.
  • Josy learned the new salsa dance.
  • Those berries are called blueberries.
  • You can make the world a better place.
adjectives
Adjectives
  • Modify (describe) nouns & pronouns
  • Answer these four questions:

Which one?

What kind?

How many?

How much?

Memorize these questions!!!!!!!!!!!!!

adjectives1
Adjectives
  • Which one? The blue coat, sixth grade
  • What kind? Nike shoes, the gentle dog
  • How many? Two tickets, most players
  • How much? A full glass, no work

Articles are the adjectives a, an & the

adjectives identify the adjectives in the sentences do not include a an the
Adjectives: identify the adjectives in the sentences. Do not include a, an & the
  • A silvery moon rode down the western sky.
  • It shed a pale light on the countryside.
  • Long meadows spread out between two hills.
  • The smell of wild grass was strong.
  • The only sound we heard was the sharp crackle of the fire.
  • Suddenly, several stars came out.
  • I watched until the entire sky was glowing with bright stars.
  • I was lonely and happy at the same time.
proper adjectives
Proper adjectives
  • Formed from proper nouns
  • Begin with capital letter
  • Examples: Japanese islands, Mexican food, Chinese alphabet, Mayan art, Christian beliefs
adverbs
Adverbs
  • Modify (describe) verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs
  • Many times end in –ly
  • Can be in almost any position in the sentence
  • Answer these four questions:

When?

Where?

How?

To what extent?

Memorize these four questions for adverbs!!!

adverbs1
Adverbs
  • Examples:

When? Now, then, yesterday, soon

Where? Here, away, down, outside

How? Slowly, easily, quietly, clearly

To what extent? Very, really, too, almost

***Note: NOT is always an adverb! Even in a contraction, such as can’t

(n’t is the adverb not)

adverb practice identify the adverbs in the sentences remember when where how to what extent
Adverb practice: identify the adverbs in the sentences. Remember: When? Where? How? To what extent?
  • Please carefully put the package there.
  • She always makes me so mad!
  • Would you briefly explain the plan?
  • Very early in her career, she made millions.
  • You will not find any answers here.
  • Soon we will hear the results of the eagerly awaited race.
  • I shut my door softly and tiptoed quietly away.
  • We seldom see this almost ridiculous behavior.
adverbs2
Adverbs
  • Please, carefully put the package there.
  • She always makes me so mad!
  • Now, would you briefly explain the plan?
  • Veryearly in her career, she made millions.
  • You will not find any answers here.
  • Soon we will hear the results of the eagerly awaited race.
  • I shut my door softly and tiptoed quietlyaway.
  • We seldom see this almost ridiculous behavior.
prepositions
Prepositions
  • Shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word in the sentence
  • Always used in a prepositional phrase
  • Prepositional phrase consists of a preposition and the object of the preposition

Example: under the table, behind the car

prepositions commonly used list
aboard about

above across

after against

along among

around at

before behind

below beneath

beside between

beyond by

down during

except for

from in into

like of off

on over past

since through

throughout to toward

under underneath

until up upon

with within

without

Prepositions: Commonly used list
prepositions compound prepositions
Prepositions: compound prepositions

According to

Aside from

Because of

In addition to

In place of

In spite of

Next to

On account of

Out of

prepositions identify the prepositional phrases in these sentences
Prepositions: identify the prepositional phrases in these sentences
  • During the summer I spend a lot of time in the pool.
  • I bought a new outfit for the party at the mall.
  • Before you start, I think you might need some help with that project.
  • You won’t have any tests in this class until next week.
  • They live near the airport and behind the stadium.
prepositions1
Prepositions
  • During the summer I spend a lot of timein the pool.
  • I bought a new outfit for the partyat the mall.
  • Before you start, I think you might need some help with that project.
  • You won’t have any tests in this classuntil next week.
  • They live near the airport and behind the stadium.
conjunctions
Conjunctions
  • Joins words or groups of words
  • Two kinds of conjunctions:

Coordinating – and, or, for, nor, but, so, yet

Correlative – works in pairs;

neither…nor, either…or, and so…but yet,

both…and, not only…but also

conjunctions find the conjunctions in the sentences below
Conjunctions- find the conjunctions in the sentences below
  • Both Andrew and Brett like to turkey hunt.
  • You love music, yet you don’t play any instrument.
  • Neither Shelia nor Kerri have their homework, and I can’t find mine.
  • Bugs Bunny is funny, but Elmer Fudd is funnier!
  • You must come with us or go with Mom.
  • Lee not only excels at football, but he also plays baseball well.
  • Mitch can either go to the beach or play all-stars.
  • Jen likes to dance, so she is taking lessons.
interjections
Interjections
  • Only shows emotion or adds emphasis
  • Does not change the meaning of the sentence
  • Usually set off with commas
  • Examples:

Wow! You really did get a haircut!

Well, maybe Mom will let me go.

I kind of like, you know, that new guy.

hallelujah you are through with the parts of speech
Hallelujah!!! You are through with the Parts of Speech!!!
  • You have now covered all eight of them:

Nouns

Pronouns

Verbs

Adjectives

Adverbs

Prepositions

Conjunctions

Interjections

label every word in each sentence
Label every word in each sentence:
  • The little blue dog jumped very high in the air for the frisbee.
  • Butterflies fluttered gracefully among the pink and purple blooms.
  • Goldfish are good pets for people who don’t have much time.
  • The big, brown truck backed slowly down the long, concrete driveway.
  • Yeah, I really want pizza, but I don’t feel like going to get one, so you can go for it.