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UNIVERSAL WORLD VALUES…?. Rushworth Kidder wrote a book entitled, Shared Values for a Troubled World He interviewed people in 16 different countries He identified 8 values universal to all 16 countries

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world values

Rushworth Kidder wrote a book entitled, Shared Values for a Troubled World

He interviewed people in 16 different countries

He identified 8 values universal to all 16 countries

How accurate is his data? There are 192 recognized countries by the UN and countless ethnicities worldwide.

WORLD VALUES
16 countries 8 values

FAIRNESS

FREEDOM

LOVE

RESPECT FOR LIFE

RESPONSIBILITY

TOLERANCE

TRUTH

UNITY

16 Countries 8 values
variable in his study

DID ALL THE COUNTRIES DEFINE THE VALUE IN THE SAME WAY?

    • What are some words that you see as hard to define across cultures? Why?
VARIABLE IN HIS STUDY
cultural universals

CULTURAL UNIVERSALS ARE DIFFERENT FROM UNIVERSAL VALUES

    • CULTURAL UNIVERSALS-NEEDS THAT ARE BASIC TO A GROUP OF PEOPLE SO THAT THEY DEVELOP CERTAIN FEATURES TO ENSURE THEIR FULFILLMENT.
    • CAN A CULTURAL UNIVERSAL TRAIT BE A RESOURCE?
CULTURAL UNIVERSALS
cultural universals1

Cultural Anthropologist George Murdock examined hundreds of different cultures in an attempt to determine general traits common to all cultures. He compiled more than 65 traits some include:

  • Body adornment, cooking, dancing, family, feasting, forms of greeting, funeral ceremonies, gift giving, housing, language, medicine, music, myths, folklore, religion, sports, and toolmaking.
    • Did he find that all cultures had the same ways of carrying these traits out?
CULTURAL UNIVERSALS
cultural values

What factors account for the many cultural differences between two societies?

    • You may have marriage in both but in one arranged marriages are commonplace, and in the other marriage occurs between lovers.
  • How do we evaluate other cultures?
    • Ethnocentrism
    • Cultural Relativism
CULTURAL VALUES
how do values become part of who you are

SOCIAL NORMS

    • SHARED RULES OF CONDUCT THAT TELL PEOPLE HOW TO ACT IN SPECIFIC SITUATIONS
  • SOCIETIES NEED NORMS
    • HOW ARE THEY ENFORCED?
HOW DO VALUES BECOME PART OF WHO YOU ARE?
2 distinct ways norms are enforced

1. INTERNALIZATION-to internalize a norm, to make it part of your personality, conditioning a person to society’s expectations

2 distinct ways norms are enforced
2 distinct ways norms are enforced1

2. SANCTIONS-rewards and or punishments used to enforce conformity to norms

    • Positive-action that rewards behavior
    • Negative-punishment to enforce conformity
    • Formal-reward or punishment by a formal organization
    • Informal-spontaneous expression of disapproval or approval by an individual or group
2 distinct ways norms are enforced
social control

SOCIAL CONTROL IS THE ENFORCING OF NORMS THROUGH INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL MEANS

    • INTERNAL: SELF CONTROL-LEARNED THROUGH INTERNALIZATION OF NORMS
    • EXTERNAL: OUTSIDE FORCES, ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
    • CAN A SOCIETY FUNCTION WITHOUT AN EFFECTIVE SYSTEM OF SOCIAL CONTROL?
SOCIAL CONTROL