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Chapter 44. Urinalysis. Characteristics of the urine. Color Pale yellow to amber Urochrome pigment from the destruction of hemoglobin Transparency Clear Normal change in the color Foods, medications, etc. Characteristics of the urine. Odor Subtle fresh urine – characteristic

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chapter 44

Chapter 44

Urinalysis

characteristics of the urine
Characteristics of the urine
  • Color
    • Pale yellow to amber
      • Urochrome pigment from the destruction of hemoglobin
    • Transparency
      • Clear
    • Normal change in the color
      • Foods, medications, etc
characteristics of the urine1
Characteristics of the urine
  • Odor
    • Subtle fresh urine – characteristic
    • Ammonia-like in standing urine
characteristics of the urine2
Characteristics of the urine
  • pH
    • 4.5-8.0
    • Acid ash foods
      • Proteins, whole wheat
    • Alkaline ash foods
      • Vegetables
    • Bacterial infections
      • Increases the alkalinity of the urine
characteristics of the urine3
Characteristics of the urine
  • Specific gravity
    • It is the relative weight of a specific volume of liquid compared with an equal volume of distilled water
    • Urine:1.001-1.030
      • <1.001=highly diluted urine
      • >1.03=highly concentrated urine
characteristics of the urine4
Characteristics of the urine
  • Diluted urine
    • Diuretics
    • Diabetes insipidus
    • Excessive water drinking
  • Concentrated urine
    • Pyelonephritis
    • Limited fluid intake
    • Dehydration
characteristics of the urine5
Characteristics of the urine
  • Renal calculi
    • Caused by the precipitation and crystallization of the solutes of the urine
characteristics of the urine6
Characteristics of the urine
  • Normal constituents
    • Water
    • Sodium, potassium
    • Phosphates and sulfates
    • Nitrogen wastes: creatinine, urea, uric acid
    • Calcium,
    • Urobilinogen,etc
abnormal urinary constituents
Abnormal urinary constituents
  • Glucose
    • Glycosuria
    • Diabetes mellitus
  • Albumin
    • Physiological albuminuria
      • Excessive exercise, pregnancy, excessive protein intake
abnormal urinary constituents1
Abnormal urinary constituents
  • Pathological albuminuria
    • Hypertension
    • Kidney trauma
    • Ingestion of heavy metals
    • Glomerulonephritis, etc
abnormal urinary constituents2
Abnormal urinary constituents
  • Ketone bodies - Traces are normal
    • Acetone
    • Beta-hydroxybutyric acid
    • Acetoacetic acid
    • Ketonuria
      • Excessive fat metabolism, diabetes mellitus, starvation, low carbohydrate diets,
      • It causes acidosis
abnormal urinary constituents3
Abnormal urinary constituents
  • Red blood cells
    • Hematuria
      • Calculi, urinary infections, trauma
    • False hematuria
      • menstruation
abnormal urinary constituents4
Abnormal urinary constituents
  • Hemoglobin
    • Hemoglobinuria
      • Hemolytic anemia
      • Blood transfusion reactions
      • Burns
      • Renal diseases
abnormal urinary constituents5
Abnormal urinary constituents
  • Nitrites
    • May indicated bacterial infection mainly gram-negatives rods
  • Bile pigments
    • Bilirubinuria
      • Hepatitis, cirrhosis, bile duct blockage
abnormal urinary constituents6
Abnormal urinary constituents
  • Urobilinogen is abnormal if:
    • Complete absence
      • Renal disease
      • Obstruction of bile flow in the liver
    • Increased levels
      • Hepatitis A
      • Cirrhosis, etc
abnormal urinary constituents7
Abnormal urinary constituents
  • White blood cells
    • Pyuria
      • Urinary infection
  • Casts
    • Are hardened cell fragments
    • Pathologic
abnormal urinary constituents8
Abnormal urinary constituents
  • Hyaline casts
    • Formed by the denaturation of mucoproteins secreted by the tubules
    • Slow filtrate rate
    • Low urine pH
    • High urine salt content
abnormal urinary constituents9
Abnormal urinary constituents
  • RBC casts
    • Glomerulonephrites
  • WBC casts
    • Pyelonephrites
  • Waxy casts
    • Degeneration of the renal tubule cells
    • End stage of renal disease