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Chapter 44

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Chapter 44

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  1. Chapter 44 A Different Kind of World: Entering the Nuclear Age, 1946-1952

  2. The Shadow of Cold War • Legacies of World War II • Atomic bomb can destroy civilization • Moral impact of holocaust • U.S. and the USSR only real victors • U.S. and USSR animosity • Communist ideology vs. democracy • U.S. recognition of USSR a practical measure • Warming of relations in World War II • FDR hopes to improve relations • FDR understands USSR postwar security concerns in Eastern Europe & need for a buffer

  3. Shadow of Cold War (cont.’d) • Insoluble problems • FDR’s death increases suspicion between nations • Truman sees USSR as still seeking revolution • Truman does follow Yalta policy • Poland reveals weakness of Yalta policy • Truman does not trust Soviets • Soviets refuse free elections in Poland • Truman applauds Churchill’s “iron curtain” speech • Truman fires Henry Wallace who favors appeasement

  4. Shadow of Cold War (cont.’d) • Containment and the Truman Doctrine • State Department Soviet expert George Kennan • U.S. must contain Russian expansion • Predicts Soviets will not push to point of war • Truman Doctrine: military aid to fight communism • $400 million for Greece and Turkey • Marshall Plan • Secretary of State George C. Marshall • U.S. aid to help reconstruct Europe • U.S. offers aid to all Europe nations • Soviets reject offer, U.S. aids 16 nations

  5. Shadow of Cold War (cont.’d) • Freezing the lines • Containment works in Europe • U.S. saves West Berlin with airlift • Creation of NATO, Warsaw pact, 1949 • Nuclear arms race underway, 1949

  6. Domestic Politics Under Truman • Truman struggles with domestic issues • U.S. has inflation, housing shortages, labor disputes • Truman seems inferior compared to FDR • Republicans gain control of Congress in 1946 • Taft-Hartley Act outlaws “closed shops” • Labor rallies to Truman • Truman vetoes 80 anti-New Deal laws • Fair Deal • Truman’s health plan fails • Truman’s civil rights legislation fails • Truman integrates armed forces, civil service through executive order

  7. Domestic Politics Under Truman (cont.’d) • Four Candidates in 1948 • Democrats: Harry S. Truman • Progressives: Henry A. Wallace • States’ Rights or Dixiecrats: Strom Thurmond • Republicans: Thomas E. Dewey • Give ’Em Hell, Harry • Polls predict easy Dewey victory • Dewey runs conservative campaign • Truman vigorously attacks Republicans • Truman wins with narrow popular margin

  8. Success in Japan, Conflict with China • Containment and China • Truman must focus on foreign affairs • Philippines, Japan are U.S. Allies • MacArthur administers occupied Japan • U.S. aid helps rebuild Japan • Rejected option in China • Chiang Kai Shek’s Nationalists vs. Mao Zedong’s Communists • Policy makers divided over whom U.S. should support • Marshall believes Zedong independent of Soviets • China Lobby • Few Americans willing to support Zedong • Madame Chiang garners U.S. support • China Lobby inundates U.S. with propaganda • Chiang too weak to defeat Communists • Flees to Taiwan

  9. Success in Japan, Conflict with China(cont.’d) • Korean Conflict • Containment line unclear in Asia • 1950, Communists in North Korea overrun South Korea • Truman reacts with force • Gets U.S. sanction for police action • MacArthur leads U.N. forces to retake peninsula • Chinese send troops, war stalemates on 38th parallel • MacArthur’s comeuppance • U.S. unable to conclude Korean hostilities • MacArthur publicly challenges Truman policy • Truman fires MacArthur • Americans express shock, sorrow

  10. Years of Tension • Truman feeds fear of communism with loyalty oath • “Red Baiting” of Henry Wallace fuels fear • Republicans use fear of communism • Alger Hiss and Richard Nixon • Hiss advisor to FDR at Yalta • Whitaker Chambers accuses Hiss of Communism • Nixon pursues case • Hiss convicted of perjury

  11. Years of Tension(cont.’d) • Senator Joe McCarthy of Wisconsin • McCarthy needs political issue • Claims there are Communists in state department • Many believe false accusations • McCarthy ruins careers • McCarthyism • Eisenhower afraid to praise Marshall • McCarran Internal Security Act • McCarthy accuses army of communism • Senate censors McCarthy

  12. Years of Tension(cont.’d) • Eisenhower becomes president of Columbia • Eisenhower hates academic life • Moderate Republicans influence Eisenhower • Eisenhower decides he has duty to run for president • Campaign of 1952 • Republicans run Eisenhower • Democrats run Adlai E. Stevenson • Stevenson’s intellectualism hurts him • Eisenhower promises to go to Korea and end war • Eisenhower wins in landslide • Eisenhower goes to Korea • Eisenhower threatens to use bomb • Bluff works, war ends in 1953

  13. Discussion Questions • What were the dynamics of history that led the U.S. and the USSR to go from allies to enemies? • What was the Marshall Plan? What was its impact on European and Soviet relations? • Examine the Korean War. What was the United States’ part in this conflict? What was the purpose of this war? • What led to the rise of McCarthyism? What caused its fall?